venetian toccata
Gabrieli- big chords, fast passages connecting
Merulo toccata
TFTFT- toccata, fugal toccata in Venice
Frescobaldi toccata
Rome- patchwork toccata, little compositions, variety in meter and tone
Neapolitan toccata
Naples- Pasquini and Scarlatti- perpetuum mobile- fast notes, no slowing down
Gothic toccata
North Germany- big elaborate, Weckmann and Vuxtehude, Bach
South Austria toccata
Froberger, Mufat, Kerll- similar to Frescobaldi, less elaborate, small instruments
Canzona da sonar sonata
Rossi and Fontana- patchwork
Fewer/longer sonata
Buonamente, Castello, Marini, Marula, Meri- early 1600s
Legrenzi Standard sonata
Fast Dance Fast, adagio added inbetween later
Corelli Standard
Sonata da chiesa- church sonata, FSF
Sonata da camera- chamber
A2, A3, etc
types of Participation
Solo- unaccompanied, duet, or trio
a2- trio
a3- 4 instruments
Concerto Canzona
Patchwork,Fontana, Castillo, Merula, Neri
Concerto Sinfonia
Cazzati, Giovanni Maria, Bononcini, Giosepi Torelli- internal conversations within orchestra
Concerto grosso
Scarlatti, Bach, and Handel- concertino (small group)/ripieno (everyone) and soli/tutti
Solo concerto
Torelli, Antonio Vivaldi, Bach, Handel- small group replaced with solo instrument
Suite- international contributions
Italy- early development
English- Jig (guige)
Spanish- Serabande
French- number of dances, tone and stylization
German- Allemande, concept of unified entity, each his own
Dance pairs suite
Italian- pavane (slow duple)/galliard and passamezzo/salterello (fast triple)
French “ordres” suite
Basard- thesaurus musicus 1603, fakebook
L. Couperin, Chambonnieres, D’Anglebert, F. Couperin
Types of Suites
Allemande-moderate 4,
Courante- fast 3,
Saraband-slow 3,
Optionals- minuet (moderate 3), gavotte (cuttime), bouree (cuttime), Passepied (3/8 or 6/8), anglaise (in 2, includes hornpiped, country dance, ecossaise), polonaise (3 pedal), loure (6/4), “air” (sustaining line)
Gigue- fast 3 felt as 1
Bach’s Suite form
ACSOG- Allemand, Courante, Saraband, Optionals, Gigue
Froberger suites
Froberger- father of suites, ACS, AGCS or ACGS, editor changed it to ACSG
Bach et al suites
Bohm- adapted ACSG form
Purcell- PACS no G
Krieger- ACSGO
Pachelbell- ACOSG
Strophic bass cantata
Bass is constant, different verses over it- Caccini-le nuove musiche, Peri-varie musiche, Grandi-Cantade ed arie a voce sola
free-composite cantata
patchwork, Rossi, Carrissimi, Cesti
Neapolitan standard cantata
Overture RA RA (RA)- Recit, Aria- Provenzale, Scarlatti
chorale cantata
Germany and Lutheran, Bach- cantata 4
free-poetic-text cantata
Cantata 56
head of beginning of oratorios. oritorio- building performed in, oritoriani- performers,
Rappresentazione di anima e di corpo, dialogue format
singing in oratorio
dialogue laude
antecedant, consequent structure- split congregation up
First oratorio masterworks, going back to latin

Juptha, Jonas, Judicium Salomonis, Extremum Judicium

Christmas Oratorio (Historia der Geburt Christi) Easter Oratorio (Historia der Arafanste)
Weinuachts (1734) Christmas
Oster Or 1736 Easter
oratorios late in his life, recitativo secco and accompagnato
Recitativo secco
dry texture, chordal accompaniment
Recitativo accompagnato
more elaborate orchestral accompaniment
just chant, ranges and rates include Evangelist- low range middle speed, Jesus- low and slow, Turba(chorus)- high and fast
Passion Settings
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
passion chorus- jews and sometimes romans
raised or heightened- passion part performed in higher key
accelerated and faster in passion
another word for Evangelist, chronologer
person who tells the story
to slow down in passion (stylized as cross)
congregation in passion
Dramatic passion
mostly chant, occasionally fauxbourdon (first inversion chords, melody line in middle) responsorial, scenic
Motet passion
chunk of text individually set as motets
operatic influence after 1600 (passion)
Baroque passion- Schutz, setting of Matthew, Luke, John- recit in german, not italian
Passion-oratorio: poetic paraphrases after 1700
Not strict accounts, storytelling, play-like, Bach
Job 1 for Bach
1703-1707-organist and choir director at Arnstadt, asked to write concerted music with instruments and voices together. Goes to Lübeck- D Buxtehude (asked to marry ugly daughter)- changed his music to “spring loaded” fast fugal sections.
Job 2 for Bach
1707-1708-Mühlhausen-St. Blasius- married Maria Barbara with 7 children.
Job 3 for Bach
1708-1717- Weimar- Kammermusicus, worked as organ fixer and builder and concertmaster. 2 dozen cantatas & big works for organ
Job 4 for Bach
1717-1722- Anhalt-Koether- worked for Prince Leopold- orchestral, keyboard, chamber music. Only made secular music. Inventions, well tempered clavier, Brandenburg concertos. 6 French suites, 6 English suites, 6 partitas.
Job 5 for Bach
1723-1750- Leipzig with Kuhnan, cantor of Thomasschule. Taught Latin, Theology, and Arithmetic. Mus der organist St. Thomas and St. Nicolas where he wrote 200+ cantatas. Art of Fugue- summarizing work, talking about form of fugue. Goldberg variations, St. Matthew and St. John passions, Christmas and Easter oratorios, Musical offerings- offering music to sons boss.
Bach Early Life
Born in 1685 in Eisenach. Father was Johann Ambrosius Bach, first to teach him primarily violin and some keyboard. Mother was Elizabeth Laemmerhirt. Whole family was famous composers. Age 10 parents die, passed on to older brother Johann Christoph Bach, who was organist and choir master in Ohrdruf. Started him in keyboard lesson, brother holding him back. Age 15, sent to Lueneburg, music school. White mensural notation in library. Learned composition with the best students. Italian ornaments, French ornaments, counterpoint, keyboard- various classes. Reinckem taught him in Hamburg. Trip to Zelle, France. In 1703, violino di ripieno of Duke Saxee Weiner.
Handel Young life
Born in 1685 in Halle. German born, Italian trained. Lived and worked in England. Father Georg, barber and surgeon, and valet to Prince Saxe Magdeburg. Mother was second wife Dorothea. At 7, visited step brother, valet of Duke Saxe-Weissenfels, fell in love with organ. Duke asks Handel’s father to ensure he gets organ lessons. Cathedral organist in Halle gives Handel lessons. At 12, already assistant organist at Halle cathedral, composing motets every week, composes 6 trio sonatas for 2 oboes and continuo, and father dies. 1702- studies law at University of Halle and hates it.
Handel early composition
1703- walks to Hamburg, hired as violino di ripieno in German Opera, directed by Keiser. Meets Mattheson, who is similar to Handel. 1706- Italian operas. 1710- Kapellmeister to Elector of Hanover, goes to England on leave of absence, writing Rinaldo. 1712- back to England, doesn’t come back to Italy. 1717- wrote Water Music, music master to Duke of Chandos, then to Prince of Wales.
Italian Life of Handel
Florence- opera Rodrigo, Venice- opera Agrippino, Rome- 2 oatorios, La Resurrezione, Il Trionfo del Tempo e del disinganno, Naples- Aci Galatea e Polifemo (mini opera)
Handel Opera 1
1720-1728- Royal Academy of Music performed at King’s Theatre Radamisto, Floridante, Ottone, Flavio, Guilio Cesare, Tamerlano, Rodelinda, Scipione, Alessadro, Admento, Riccardo I (the first), Tolomeo
Handel Opera 2
1729-1732- Partnered with Heidegger, contrasted Handels awful personality- O operas- Lotario, Poro, Ezio, Orlando
Handel Opera 3
1732-1737- Handel going solo, Opera of Nobility (competition to Handel, wanted to see him go down, included Porpora, Hasse, Farinelli) Senesino on Handels side until fight. 1737, both companies collapse and stroke, losing right hand and arm controls. A operas- Ariodante, Alcina, Atalanta, Armenio.
H2 period (operas)
1737-1741-last operas include Serse, Jupiter in Argos, Imeneo, Deidamia.
H2 period (oratorios)
1739-1759- Saul, Israel in Egypt, Messiah, Sampson, Joseph and his Brethren, Belshazzar, Judas Maccabeus, Joshua, Susannah, Solomon, Choice of Hercules (mythology not biblical), Jephtha-1752. 3 operations on cataracts, plays Messiah from memory, dies 8 days later (April 14th).