Bubonic Plague
Black Death (1348-50)
Ars Nova
“new art” created in 14th century
New Musical Things of 14th Century
Time signature, rhythm, duple metor
Ars Antiqua
“old art” of the 13th century
Babylonian Captivity of Pope
1305-1378, Vatican was dangerous, Pope moved over France border
Church importance of 14th c
Less important than 13th century
Official resolution of Multiple papcy
Hundred Years War
1338-1453 between English and French, fought in France
Black Death
Bubonic Plague- 1348-1450
Dante (d1321)
Divine Comedy
Boccaccio (d1375)
Chaucer (d1400)
Canterbury Tales- beginnings of realism, 3-D characterizations
Giotto (d1337)
perspective visual art, realism, humanism
Ars. Nova vs. Trecento
Ars. Nova was in France during 14th c. and Trecento was in Italy during 14th c.
Philippe de Vitry (d 1361)
Ars nova Treatise (1325)- French
Ars nova Treatise (1325)
French- rhythm, and tempus perfectum/imperfectum and prolatio perfecta/imperfecta
one measure worth of beats
Division of brevis (measure)
Division of semi brevis
refers to division of brevis
refers to division of semi-brevis
3 divisions
2 divisions
Tempus perfectum, prolatio perfecta
3 minima per semi brevis, 3 semi brevis per brevis (modern 9/8) (.)
Tempus perfectum, prolatio imperfecta
2 minima per semi brevis, 3 semi brevis per brevis (modern 3/4) ()
Tempus imperfectum, prolatio perfecta
3 minima per semi brevis, 2 semi brevis per brevis (modern 6/8) (.
Tempus imperfectum, prolatio imperfecta
2 minima per semi brevis, 2 semi brevis per brevis (modern 2/4) (
Marchettus of Padua
Italian Treatus pomerium (quternaria, senaria perfecta, senaria imperfecta, octonaria, novenaria, and duodenaria)
quaternaria (same as Fr. tempus imperfectum, prolatio imperfecta) 2 minima per semi, 2 semi per brevis (2/4)
Senaria Perfecta (same as Fr. tempus perfectum, prolatio imperfecta) 2 minima per semi, 3 semi per brevis (3/4)
Senaria imperfecta (same a Fr. tempus imperfectum, prolatio perfecta) 3 minima per semi, 2 semi per brevis (6/8)
Novenaria (same as Fr. tempus perfectum prolatio perfecta) 3 minima per semi, 3 semi per brevis (9/8)
Octonaria, similar to 4/4, two sets of semi brevis. 4 minima per 2 semi, 2 semi per every 1 semi, 2 semi per 1 brevis
duodenaria, like 6/4. two sets of semi brevis. 4 minima per 2 semi, 2 semi per 1 semi, 3 semi per 1 brevis
Fixed Forms
formeo fixe
French, ABbaA (same as Ballata)
French, AaB- Analog of German bar form
French, AbaAa’bAB- not like modern rondo
Italian, ABbaA (same as Virelai). Ripresa-A, piedi-Bb, Volta-a
Italian, AB, not same as Renaissance. Meter change. Subject: Unicorns, white peacocks, fanciful fantasy
canon 2 voice. plus instrumental tenor. Rough, outdoorsy, hunting scenes, yelling, other effects, often AB w meter change
Double leading tone cadence
Scale degree 2->1, sharp4->5, 7->8 (harmonic cadence)
Under-third cadence
(melodic cadence) scale degree 8-7-7-6-8
Just in tenor part. Tune element applied to unequal rhythm element (rhythm of Row Your Boat, tune of Frere Jaques)
Tune element (in Tenor)
Rhythm element (in Tenor)
In all voices there is isorhythm.
Catch in breath, like a hiccup. Syncopation, voice exchange.
Machaut (d1377)
Messe de Notre Dame-First unified polyphonic mass setting of the ordinaries (all 5 composed by same guy)
Landini (d1397)
Poet and composer, idea of music that enthralls animals (Orpheus myth)
John Dunstable (d1453)
Musician who crosses over enemy line after 100 yr war to play for French- Suspension, English Discant, and insipient
Sweet English Sound
3rds, 6ths, first inversion chords repeated
12th Century gymel
15th Century English Discant vs French faux bourdon
Discant- first inversion chord with melody in middle note, French bourdon- First inversion chord with melody on top voice
Burgundian School
long line of Bugundian Dukes, King John (the good)->Philip (the bold)->John(the fearless)->Philip (the good)->Charles (the bold)–> Created a group of artists, called “chapel”
Burgundian Artists
Dufay (d1474) and Binchois (d1460)
Textures of Burgundian
Triplum duplum tenor–> Discantus contratenor tenor–>Discantus (superius->soprano) contratenor altus tenor contratenor bassus
Mass types
Missa Choralis, Cantus Firmus Mass, Motto Mass, Parody Mass, Missa sine nomine
Missa Choralis
mass based on set chant melodies (pre-existing chant melodies), different melody on each part
Cantus Firmus Mass
All parts based on same melody, melody not necessarily from chant
Motto Mass
Each section begins with same musical idea
Parody Mass
Specific melody and applies it to a situation (happy birthday in minor elaborated)
Missa Sine Nomine
No-name mass, generally a “naughty” topic not accepted by church or completely new material
Sogetto Cavato
missa Hercules dux Ferrariae- written to honor famous person
Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae
Written by Josqui, worked in Ferrariae (re ut re ut re fa mi re)
Joannes Ocheghem, pupil of Dufay–> connected to Burgundian
Franco Flemish musicians
Ocheghem taught… Obrecht (d1505), Joaquin des Prez (very greates, d 1521), Pierre de la Rue (d1518), Heinrich Isaac (d1517), Antoine Brumel (d1520), Compere (d 1518)
Missa Prolationum
Ocheghem, Mass using progressive canon throughout movements. New, different, modern! Imperfect intervals used
Vernacular types
frottola, madrigal, Parisian chanson, German polyphonic Lied
Italian, simple texture, precursor to Renaissance madrigal, unrequited love Cara (d1525) Tromboncino (d1535)
Festa (d1545) Arcadelt (d1560), what we know as Madrigal now
Parisian chanson
France- Duple meter (1 2+ 1 2+, or quarter eighth eighth) Onomatopoeia, bird calls. Fevin (d1512) Mouton (d1522) Clement Jannequin (d1560, important)
Polyphonic Lied of Germany
Nature fetish, Isaac (d1517) and Senfl (d1543, friend of Martin Luther)
Lasso (d1594) and Palestrina (d1594)- Late century developments
Important counterpoint composers, preference from 4 voice-> 5 voice-> 6 voice
Chromaticism and Vernacular Language
Gesualdo (d1613) and Marenzio (d1599)
Chromaticism and Gesualdo was CRAZY!
Venetian Polychoral School
Architecturally driven, text important, obsessed with Ancient Greek music, MOTET, chori spezzati (antiphonal), intonazione, concertato, canzona, etc.
chori spezzati
divided choir (antiphonal, choir v. choir)
introductory passage before choral piece
Contrast! (loud vs. soft, men v. women, instrument vs. voice)
Italian chanson- (1 2+ 1 2+, quarter eighth eighth)
Instrumental song
Anything sung
Either busy fingers piece or fanfare
San Marco
Where everything went down in da’ venetian hood, oh yeah!
Florentine Camerata
Group that produced all the Venetian stuff
Bardi, Corsi
Florentine aristocrats
Florentine Poet of Camarata
V. Galilei
Venetian Scientist (uncle of Gallileo), in Florentine Camarata
Caccini and Peri
Florentine musicians
Daphne (1597) and Euridice (1600)
Daphne- 1st opera, was lost, written by Peri
Euridice- 1st surviving opera, written by Caccini and Peri
Le Nuove Musiche (1602)
Collection of music (solo, voice) by Caccini, starts Baroque style (recognizing chord as unit, intro unprepared dissonance, figured bass as system and new ornaments)
Florentine Camarata
society of men, Bardi and Corsi- aristocrats, Rinnuccini- poet, Galilei- scientist, Peri and Caccini- musicians–> came up with the chord, figured bass, ornaments
Peri and Caccini
Peri- Daphne, Both- Euridice
Le nuove musiche
Caccinis treatise (1602)- figured bass, chord as unit, new ornaments (Florentine Camarata, particularily Caccini and Peri)
Monteverdi (d1643)
Very important, both Florentine and Venician styles. Wrote Orfeo (1607) and Arianna (1608, lost except for Lament), Il ritorno d’Ulisse (1641) and Coronazinoe di Poppea (1642)
Roman wrote Il Sant’Alessio
Roman wrote Orfeo
Characteristics of Roman opera
Chorus, sacred subject, comic interludes, recitative melts into the aria
Venetian Opera
Overture : slow/fast (fast section is imitative). stage effects, spectacle, duet arias, vocal ensembles, integrated comedy.
San Cassiano
First public opera house (1637)
Monteverdi (in Venice)
Il ritorno d’Ulisse (1641) and Coronazinoe di Poppea (1642)
Venitian wrote Giasone, Calisto
Venitian, wrote Il pomo d’oro
Neapolitan opera
opera seria vs. opera buffa, new musical elements, N6, viio7, sinfonia (overture for opera seria, fast slow fast), siciliano (dotted eighth sixteenth eighth rhythm)
Opera seria vs. opera buffa
Seria is tragic (3 acts, comedy between each), buffa is funny (2 or 4 acts)
Neapolitan wrote Griselda and La Rosaura
Orfeo (Monteverdi)
5 acts, happy beginning and ending, sad middles. Arch form. Invented baroque style 100 yrs before baroque style.
Orfeo 1st act
Happy Orfeo with new lover
Orfeo 2nd act
Death of Euridice by snake, messenger tells Orfeo
Orfeo 3rd act
Confrontation, Orfeo goes to underworld and confronts Hades
Orfeo 4th act
Hades relents, lovers leave, Orfeo looks back, Euridice dies
Orfeo 5th act
Orfeo and Euridice become constellations
Arch form
Any musical or artistic palindrome
Calisto (Cavalli)
2 acts, more “weighty”, overture is slow fast (french baroque overture), belcanto. Recitative style aria. Recit and Aria were connected.
Calisto Act 1
Wasteland, Ruse, Lovers, Mashers
Calisto Act 2
Sleeping Endmyon, Jove and Discomfort, Curse on Calisto into Bear, Lovers Rescue, Constellation