Who Discovered Hawaii
Polynesian Settlers
Who was the first Englishman to Come to Hawaii and When did he do it?
James Cook 1778
When did Hawaii Become a US territory?
What are the Social Classes of the Hawaiian Society
Ali’i – Chiefs
Kahuna – Priests/Specialists
Maka’ainana – Commoners
Kaua – Slaves and Untouchables
What is Mana?
Sacred Power that has a spiritual source in all Objecs, animals and humans (think avatar)
What is Kapu?
Rituals and Prohibitions, Laws that regulate interaction (Taboos)
What is Mele?
Traditional Hawaiian Chant
What are charachteristics of Mele?
-Expression of life
-Communication between humans and the world
-Tell stories for history or genealogy
-History of Hawaii
What art form does mele identify with?
What is most important about mele?
The words
What is Kaona?
The hidden Meanings in mele
What are the two types of mele?
– Mele oli
– Mele Hula
How is Mele Oli Performed?
-Sung by one person unaccopanied by instruments
-In Free Meter
What is Meter?
Regular grouping of Beats
What is Mele pule ho’oulu?
-Prayer chant asking for inspuration
-example of mele oli
-free meter, vocal ornamentation
What is Melee pule ho’oulu no Laka
-Prayer chant to Laka asking for inspuration
-Example of Mele oli
-Free meter, vocal ornamentation
What are the Characteristics of Mele Hula?
-Sung by more than one person, accompanied by dance and instruments
-Rythmically is organized to meter
What is Mele inoa no Hi’iaka?
– Name chant for the goddess Hi’iaka
– Duple Meter (beats in groups of 2)
– Accompanied by instrument
What is Mele inoa no Kalakaua?
– A name chant for Kalakaua
– Example of mele hula[
– Instrumentation with drums
How does Hula express the text of Mele?
Through Movement
What were the original goals of Hula?
-To honor gods
-Honor the Nobility, Hawaiian people
-Tell stories
-Enforce perfectionism in dance
What came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1820-1830s?
When did guitar come to Hawaii?
What came as a result of attempting to blend cultures?
Hula ku’i
-music and dance that blended western and Hawaiian musical elements
What were the western influences in Nani Kaua’i?
-Strophic form, Call and Response
-Instrumentation (Guitars)
-Melodic contours (Tuneful sounding melody)
Hawaiian Influence on Nani Kaua’i?
-Hawaiian Language
-Type of mele (text)
-Use of breakes in voice
Western influences in Moanalua?
-Melodic contour
– Instrumentation (Guitar, Ukulele)
Hawaiian Influences in Moanalua?
-Hawaiian Language
-Text is a type of Mele
What type of song emerged in the 20th century in Hawaii?
Hapa haole
Charachteristics of Hapa Haole?
-American Pop with Hawaiian songs
-English and Hawaiian Phrases
-Lyrics made Hawaii inviting Paradise
-Attract American Tourists
What type of song is Honolulu Hula Hula Heigh?
A Hapa Haole Song
-English with Hawaiian
-Western Instruments
What two types of guitar playing are associated with Hawaii?
-Slack Key
-Steel Guitar
What is Slack Key guitar?
Strings are loosened, Slackedned, Different types of tunings
What is an example of slack key guitar?
-Wai O Ke Aniani
-O’opu Nui
-Yodel song
What is Steel guitar?
Steel bar that slid up and down the fret board, Popular by 1890s
Who Performed Kaala?
Sol Hoopi in 1931
In early native american society what are songs associated with?
Super Natural Power
What is Song Ownership and who was it associated with?
Native Americans believed that songs belonged to an individual, family or clan and only social songs were for everyone to sing
What is an example of A stick or bone game song?
Joe Washington with his wife and son
When was the indian shaker church founded?
Western washington in 1882 by John and Mary Slocum
Who sung the Indian Shaker song
Tommy Bob (Swinomish) in La Conner 1950
What do native american story songs do?
Describe a time when animals were people and a Changer created the world today
“The man who would not wash his face” is an example of what
Native American Story song
What is “The man who would not wash his face” about?
Attempting to appeal to relatives for help so that they may bring a flood to transform the world
How was Dirty face used in Lushootseed Culture?
-Primacy of family relationships
-Association with spiritual power
-Importance of place
What does Mariachi mean today?
-Type of group or ensemble
-Musician who plays Mariachi
-Style of Music
When was Spanish Colonial rule?
When did Mariachi emerge?
Mid 19th Century
How and when did Mariachi Take shape?
From the 1920s to 30s through Radio and Film
-Now emblem of Mexican Identity
What is typical instrumentation of Mariachi?
How many Musicians in a Mariachi Band?
7-10, Can vary
What is the role of Trumpets, Violin and Voice in Mariachi?
-Play the melody
-In Harmony
What is the role of the Vihuela in Mariachi?
Provide rhythmic pulse and harmonic Accompaniment
What is the role of the guitar in mariachi?
Provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment
What is the Guitarron’s role in Mariachi Music?
The Bass
What is the Armonia in the Mariachi style?
The Rhythm section
-Guitarron, Vihuela, and Guitar
What is the Instrumentation in the Burro Pardo?
-2 Trumpets
-4 Violins
(Play Melodic roles)
-Voices (Sing)
-2 Guitars
What is Gritos?
Stylized Calls, Used to add or indicate excitement, emotion or dramatic effect
When did Mariachi start to play a significant role in the US?
What created the demand for Mariachi in the US?
Immigrants from Mexico in the years following WWII
How is Mariachi used in the US?
-Weddings, Bdays, Baptisms, Parties
-Restaraunts, bars
-Catholic Masses
What is important about the lyrics of “Son Jalisciense”
Double Meanings in the lyrics
What song uses and alternation between 2 beat and 3 beat feel?
The Son Jalisciense
What is Ranchera?
Both a genre and a general term for Mexican Music rooted in rural life, “Country Music”
What meter is Ranchera in?
Triple or duple meter, Tends to be simple
What is a style of mariachi about love and uses simple rhythms?
What is Conjunto?
A style of Mexican and Mexican American Popular Music played through southern Texas and Northern Mexico
Where is Conjunto Tejano prominant?
Southern Texas (Mexican, European, and American Influences)
What are Conjunto Tejano songs about?
Love, heartbreak and immigration
What language is Conjunto Norteno sung in?
Where is Conjunto norteno found?
Northern Mexico
What instruments are found in Conjunto tejano?
-Bajo Sexto (12 String Bass)
-Button Accordian
-Upright or electric Bass
-Drumb Kit
What forms of Mexican music do Conjuto tejano play?
-Ranchera (Love and Heartbreak/Simple Pleasures)
-Corrido (Story of Person,Battle or event)
-Polka (Dance song in beats of 2)
What nationality immigrated to Texas in the late 19th to early 20th century?
Who popularized the tejano accordian?
Flaco Jimenez
Santiago Jimenez Jr.
What was a major point of tension in conjunto Tejano
Race and Ethnicity between Mexicans and Germans
What sex dominated conjunto tejano?
Who recorded Mal Hombre
Lydia Mendoza (1934)
– Known for singing and 12 string guitar playing
Who was Flaco Jimenez?
Conjunto tejano musician
-Important Accordionist and singer
-Important Family
Who was Alan Lomax
A folklorist that helped “revive” Folk
Who was Woody Guthrie
Famous Folk performer who helped “revive” Folk
Who was discovered in the 1930s by John and Alan Lomax?
Huddie Ledbetter
-Lead Belly or Leadbelly
-Sang and Played guitar
Who performed Goodnight Irene?
Huddie Ledbetter
When did woodie Guthrie move to New York and what Kind of image did he have
1940s with a common man image
Who sang this land is your land?
Woodie Guthrie in 1940
Who wrote Roll on Columbia?
Woodie Guthrie in 1941
What did Roll on columbia do?
-Degredation to the Native American image in mainstream
– Glorification of public works programs, Grand Coulee Dam
Prominant Folk Groups during the revival?
– The Almanac Singers
– The Weavers
What was Seegers Political and Social Activism through his music?
Impact that fears of communism had on seegers career and the urban folksinging movement
What did the Weavers do before any other folk group?
Achieve Commercial Sucess
Who led the Weavers?
Pete Seeger
When was the Weavers formed?
Who wrote “Goodnight Irene” and when
The weavers in 1950
-Reached #1 on pop charts
What other songs did Seeger Perform?
Jay Goulds Daughter(1957)
St. James Infirmary
Who wrote the New Market Wreck?
Mike Seeger in 1965
What were some aspects of the Folk Revival
-Social Conciousness, Social activism, Protest
-Preference for live music
-Audience Participation
What is a Hootenannie?
Gathering in a hall or house to sing songs
Who were the important performers for the growth of Urban Folk?
-Woody Guthrie
-Pete Seeger
-The Weavers(With Pete Seeger)
What type of instruments did the Kingston Trio use and when were they formed?
1957 and acoustic instruments
Who performed “Tom Dooley”
The Kingston Trio in 1958
-Acoustic instrumentation
Who became a part of the Boston Folk scene in the late 50s?
Joan Baez
Who sang Silver Dagger?
Joan Baez 1960
When did Bob Dylan become established?
early 1960s
What were the Characteristics of Dylans performance style?
-Importance of poetry
-“Everyman” Voice
-Acoustic guitar and harmonica
Who sang “The times are a-changin”?
Bob Dylan in 1964
What year was a pivital year for the rise of folk rock
-Dylan has an electric album
– Dylans Mr Tambourine man released by byrds
-Like a rolling stone reaches 2
-Dylan performs with electric band
What did it mean for dylan to go electric?
-Turning back on “purism”
What form is “Like a rolling stone”
-Longest pop single ever released at the time
What was a Freedom song?
Songs that were used during the civil rights movement
What types of practices did Freedom songs take from old styles?
Lining out
-used to teach new text and encouraged participation
What became the anthem of the civil rights movement?
“we shall overcome”
What did Pete Seeger write “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy” in 1960s For?
Protesting US involvement in Vietnam
Whos performance was cencored by CBS in the late 60s?
Pete Seeger
What is Corrido?
Story of Person Battle or Event
What is Son Jorocho?
Muic from Veracruz, Mexico where singing is passes from person to person. Played at fandangos
What is a fandango?
A community celebration with singing and dancing
What is a Zapateado?
Percussive dancing on top of a wooden table or platform known as a tarima
What is a corrido?
Ballad of the Mexico/US Borderland