Cantus firmus mass
•mass cycle (combining all movements-kyrie, Gloria etc- together as one unified composition)
• Unified through musical quotations from a pre-existing composition; can be sacred or secular
• Uses tenor voice as foundation of mass
Prolation mass
• series of double mensuration canons, notated in two voices but sung in four parts using the four basic meters (from the Ars Nova)
• 2 melodies for 4 voice pieces
• prolation canon; used at beginning of prolation mass to get the voices behind each other to eventually create harmony with each other (see pg. 197, Ockeghem’s Missa prolationum)
o Basically, the four voices begin singing the same pitches at the same time, but in four different rhythmic meters. This causes the voices to slowly stagger.
• After the voices are staggered, the voices sing in rounds (comparable to Row, Row, Row Your Boat)
Paraphrase mass
• mass cycle based on a preexisting melody
• Melody used in all voices, not only tenor
• Chant: source of melodic material for the mass
Multiple notes per syllable
Lutheran Chorale
• Luther regarded music as a crucial tool for launching the new faith
• Promotes congregational participation
• Can also be practiced at home with private devotions
• strophic (melody is repeated over and over again), unison German hymn meant to replace chant
• Melodies adapted from existing Gregorian chants or popular secular songs
• Texts are in German (the vernacular)
• 1520s
• English equivalent of the choral motet
• Performed in church of England services and used for home devotions
• composition of sacred music w/ text in vernacular instead of Latin was a key contribution of the Reformation
• Ex: Sing Joyfully, Byrd (pg. 241)
• Composers start to become interested in how music can accent words, i.e. poetry
• Attempt to use music to imitate the meaning of the text
• Musical imagery – descending scale on the word “descend” (ex: Pope Marcellus Mass)
• three voices to represent the trinity where there had been full voicing up until that point (ex: Three-voice texture for “Filium Dei unigenitum”)
16th Century Madrigal • Audience was educated and well versed in music and literature • Performed in salons: gatherings of intellectuals to engage in dialogue and musical performance • Enjoyed by elite and lower class who can afford prints of the music, but mostly for the enjoyment of the performers themselves • Performed with one voice on a part at elite gatherings, co-ed (sometimes instruments would replace a voice) • Used partbooks 16th Century Italian Madrigal • Free rhyme scheme• Elevated poetry • written for professional singers (important to the courts in Northern Italy)
? Created at court and among the aristocracy; Spanish alternative to French chanson
? Texts evoke the life of Spanish peasants
? Humorous text
? Suggests that peasants are happy with their lives, as long as they get to eat and drink
? Poetic form varies, but always includes a refrain and at least one stanza
• Italian secular/popular song of the 16th century
• Usually aristocratic music
• Developed at the court of Mantua
• Direct forerunner of 16th century madrigal
• Ex: Io non compro by Cara (pg. 290)
Parisian Chanson
• Need for simpler type of music that Aristocrats can participate in and still be amateurs
• If someone practiced too often, they were seen as desperate to make a living that way; lowly professional musicians
• Syllabic, homorhythmic, strophic setting
• Root-position triads
• Simple enough for Aristocrats to take part in
English Guise
• Rise of Burgundy;
• Location: today’s Belgium/Netherlands
• Council where church officials meet and bring their people w/ them (including musicians)
• Exposed to each other’s music
• French add English elements into their music
o Syllabic, consonant 3rds and 6ths, regular phrasing, homorhythmic textures
Use of pre-existent musical material in Mass settings
Paraphrase mass
• Each movement based on same polyphonic work, all voices adapted in the mass
• Ex: O Magnum Mysterium by Victoria (pg. 269)
• Ex: Nun Komm der Heiden Heiland by Luther (pg. 231)
• Ex: Missa Pange Lingua by Josquin (pg. 217)
• Ex: Missa Se la face ay pale by Du Fay (pg. 179)
Role of music in the Lutheran and Anglican Churches
Lutheran- congregational participation
o Musical Targets for Reform
? Church serving as an artistic patron
? Professionalization of music (polyphony)
? Inaccessibility of the music and words to laity because of Latin text

Anglican: English church formally separated from the Roman Catholic church in 1534
• Latin?English in the service
• Promotes congregational involvement
o Musical Reactions
• Syllabic settings of vernacular texts
• Edward VI declared that composers should “setting thereunto a playn and distance note, for every syllable one” (syllabic, rather than melismatic; more about the message than the aesthetics of the music; use of the vernacular)
o William Byrd, Sing Joyfully
• Text in English
• Syllabic text setting
• Free use of imitation
• Little homophony

Counter Reformation
• Catholics realize that they have competition (with Protestants) and need to step up their game
• See Palestrina in Reading 18
• Also turn their Latin texts into English for congregational purposes
Musical rhetoric/text-music relationships
• See text painting (#7 above)
• Palestrina latching onto a word and trying to convey it’s meaning through music
• Musical imagery
Role of music in royal courts
• The Spanish Courts; Villancico
• Ferdinand/Isabella
• Encina’s Oy comamos y bebamos (pg. 287)
• Formes fixes; really hard compared to Parisian chanson
Class issues in music
• print allows genres to emerge in middle/aristocratic class
• Italian madrigals performed in salons-courtesans are not aristocratic
Social context of the Italian madrigal
• Motivation from 14th century medieval poet (sex in the courts)
• Sing for pleasure, not necessarily for audience
• Women sing too; courtesans who basically traded sexual favors etc. for a living; still members of the court, but of lower class. However, they had more fun and were known for their musicianship as well.