African American Drum Orchestra
Title= Rhythmic pattern; Instruments:drums;shakers;gangoui(cowbell); played with hands and beaters;voice: natural and expressive;Dancing:Athletic,expressive;music related;played the song ?agbekor?
AADO cont.
Music was ensemble based with soloists and accompaniment; polyrhythmic;repetitive and ostinato pattern based; Rhythms were related to the language; the master drummer did solo improvisation; vocal: singing;whoops;shouts and speech like;Dance was interpretations of the music and usually told a story used in war etc.
Rhythm and Blues
A fusion of blues and swing
Race Records
1920s;used in a positive way to describe the African americans after the civil war;Described records made for the black community; Changed to Rhythm and Blues in late 1940?s.
Second ?Great Migration?
1940s; In WWII 1500000 african americans moved to northern and western cities; high paying jobs; created new kinds of Black Music that reflected the life of the Urban Black Community
Louis Jordan and his Timpani Five
saxophonist/singer/composer/bandleader; He transformed big band swing into the combo sound; had the ?jump blues sound?; Played caldonia;
Instrumentation of Louis Jordan and his timpani five
2 saxophones; electric guitar; piano;trumpet;bass;drums
Louis Jordan and his timpani five song titles
His song titles reflected black folk life: such as ?aint nobody here but us chickens; beans and corn bread; Saturday night fish fry; choo choo ch boogie
Early R & B recordings
West coast; central avenue los angeles; they included piano;guitar;bass;drums and latin rhythms as well as a honking tenor saxophone style
Characteristics of R& B
Had the boogie woogie feel; blues form; instrumental accompaniment-riffs;saxophone;piano;drums;bass;electric guitar; unusual timbres; and eventually had a heavy back beat it developed throughout the years portrayed in songs that he had in slides
Nat King Cole
Piano/Band Leader/singer; played jazz;club blues;cocktail music; Appealed to Black and white audiences;mellow background music;Guitar;piano;bass instrumentation; played :straighten up and fly right and ; Unforgettable
Vocal Harmony Groups
? Barbershop style of early 20th century
? Male quartets singing stylized four-part harmony of popular songs.
? Themes were mostly comic tunes, snappy pop tunes, or melancholy love songs.
? A cappella – without instrumental accompaniment
played “let me call you sweetheart”
The Mills Brothers
Black barbershop harmonies
? Instrumental vocal sounds
? Vocal bass lines
? Crossed racial boundaries
The Mills Brothers song “Hold That Tiger”
? 1930s movie short
? Four singers with guitar accompaniment
? Guitarist sings bass lines
? Vocal trumpet sounds
? Scat vocal
Early microphones frightened some singers so the engineer camouflaged them.
The Ink Spots
Contemporaries of the Mills Brothers
? Also appealed to both Black and White
? Signature feature: Spoken lyrics by the bass voice
? “If I Didn’t Care” – #1 hit.
Golden Gate Quartet
? Beganin1930ssinging Barbershop arrangements with jazz and blues inflection
? Sang at FranklinD. Roosevelt’s inauguration.
? 1930s national radio show
? Vocal Group Hall of Fame 1998
Golden gate jubilee quartet continued
Arrangementsincluded vocal instrumental sounds
? A Cappella singing
? Tightharmony
? Rhythmicdelivery
? GoldenGate“GospelTrain”
? No accompaniment
? Vocal train imitations
? “Chugging train rhythm”
? Syncopation
Second generation Vocal R&B
? 1950s teenagers seeking a way out of poverty
? Performed on street corners, at school gatherings, in city parks, and on sidewalk stoops.
? Songs dealt with teenage experiences and fantasies
The Ravens
? 1945 – NYC
? Bridged the gap
between pre-war and post-war vocal groups
? Repertoire included pop standards and ballads in a jazz-blues treatment
The Ravens – 1950s “Old Man River”
? Piano, Guitar accompaniment
? Bass vocal lead
? Vocal background
? Non-sense syllables
? Swing rhythm
? Syncopation
1946 ? InspiredbyBlacksacred music
? Church harmonies
? Tenor obbligato
? Religiousballads
? Inspiredlater‘bird”groups; Swallows, Penguins, The Robins, and the Cardinals.
played “crying in the chapel”
The Spaniels
? Used non-sense syllables “doo-doo- doo—doo-do” adding rhythmic interest to ballads.
? Bass sang “jazz style walking bass lines”
played goodnite sweetheart
• Louisville,KY
• Started as the “Crazy Sounds.” Alan Freed changed their name to the “Moonglows.”
• Recorded “Sincerely” for Chess in 1954
• Developed the “blow harmony” technique
• This technique became standard for Black vocal groups and ushered in the “Doo Wop” sound of the fifties.
Moonglows “sincerely-1954
? Doo Wop vocal quartet
? Ballad style
? Lead singer with vocal background
? Used “blow harmony”
? Instruments? piano,guitar,saophone
? What is the meter?4/4
1950s youth
?? Teenagers became the major group for popular music consumption
? Also, many performers of R&B were teen- age Black singers from urban areas.
? Record companies signed R&B vocal groups aimed at the African American market.
New Orleans R&B
? Black talent scouts developed new dance forms by introducing Cuban rhythms into the doo wop vocal styles.
? Regional R&B styles developed including New Orleans
? “Professor Longhair (Roy Byrd),” “Fats” Domino exemplified this style
“Hey Little Girl”-Professor Longhair
? Instruments? Piano, bass, drums
? Rhythm? Rhumba – “Latin Tinge”
? Musical Form? The Blues
? Lyric form? aab form
? Vocal Timbre? timbre
“Fats” Domino
? New Orleans
? Influenced by “Professor Longhair”
? Piano
? Most famous of the New Orleans R&B performers
“blueberry Hill”
Songs like shboom by the black band chords were done as covers by bands like the crew cuts in order to appeal to white audiences.
The platters
played “smoke gets in your eyes”
Becoming rock and Roll
bands like the clovers whoo played”fool,fool,fool”
ruth Brown who played “5-10-15 house “. And big Joe Turner played shake rattle and roll paved the path for bands to come in to rock and roll
Billy Ward and the dominoes
? East Coast Doo wop
? Ballad style
? 1951
? “HarborLights” ? “Stardust”
? “DeepPurple”
? “60MinuteMan”
Little Richard
? Richard Penniman (b. 1932) ? Religious Background
? Rhythm and Blues
? Piano – Energetic – Hard
? Singer – Influence
“Tutti frutti”
Played by little Richard it had Falsetto “whoops”,nonsense syllables and a fast rock beat.
Chuck Berry
Considered father of Rock and Roll
• Chicago
• Electric Guitar • Hit records:
• “Maybellene” – “Ida Red” • “Roll Over Beethoven and Johny b. goode
Bo Diddley
? Elias McDaniel ? “Diddley Bo”
? Rhythm Patent tried to
played “Bo’Diddley”
Reactions to Rock and Roll
? 1956 – White Citizens Council of Birmingham, Alabama: [rock and roll] appeals to the base in man, brings out animalism and vulgarity, and most important, represented a “plot to mongrelize America.”
? Rock and roll brought “the animal instinct in modern teenagers.”
? We are talking about“hugs”and“squeeze”andother “euphemisms which are attempting a total breakdown of all reticence’s about sex”
Crossover Music
? The Platters (1953)
? Hit Recordings:
? “Only You”
? “The Great Pretender” ? “My Prayer”
? “Twilight Time”
Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
? Atlantic Records
? Incorporated “Pop”
production techniques:
? Chorus/refrainsongs
? Blues/Gospelharmonies
? Comboarrangements
with orchestral
? TheCoastersandElvis Presley
The Coasters
? Humorous tunes composed by Leiber and Stoller
? “Searchin”
? “YacketyYak” ? CharlieBrown ? “PoisonIvy”
Latin Rhythms(habanara and Baion)
ben e king- up on the roof
Gospel derived rock
? Ray Charles ? R&B Hits
? Country
? “Georgia”
? “I Can’t Stop Loving You”
? 1st Crossover song
? “What’d I Say”
Sam Cook(1931-1964)
? The Soul Stirrers
? Teen idol
? Recorded R&B in
1957 – forced to leave
? “The greatest sex
symbol in gospel history”