Has to be a D-97 if
1) m9 between soprano and bass
2) Bass moves strongly
a 13th will move down in what interval(s)?
a 2nd or 3rd
A sign of a 13th chord
soprano descends a 3rd to the following chord
How to build a Deceptive Cadence
1) 3rd, Leading Tone and Bass go up stepwise
2) other voice goes down
3) double 3rd of vi chord
How to tell the difference between a half-diminished 7 chord and a D97 chord (aurally)
half-dim: bottom note sounds like a leading tone
D97: strong sol
Is this D7 a real dominant or a secondary dominant??
See if the root is the real dominant of the key. If not, it is a secondary dominant.