Tristan und Isolde 141

  • Tristan und Isolde: Prelude and Conclusion of Act I 
  • Richard Wagner 
  • Opera

La traviata 142

  • La traviata: Act II, Scena and Duet
  • Giuseppe Verdi
  • Opera

Madama Butterfly 143

  • Madama Butterfly: Excerpt from Act I 
  • Giacomo Puccini
  • Opera 

Carmen 141

  • Carmen: Act I, no. 10, Sequidilla and Duet
  • Georges Bizet 
  • Opera 

Boris Godunov 145

  • Boris Godunov: Coronation Scene
  • Modest Musorgsky 
  • Opera

Symphony No. 4 147

  • Symphony No. 4 in Eminor, op. 98: 4th mvt., Alleger energico e passionato 
  • Johannes Brahms
  • Symphony 


Quintet for Piano and String in Fminor 148

  • Quintet for Piano and Strings in Fminor, op. 34, 1st mvt.  Allegro non troppo
  • Johannes Brahms 
  • piano quintet 

Don Quixote 149

  • Don Quixote, op. 35: Themes and Variations 1-2 
  • Richard Strauss 
  • tone poem

Kindertotenlieder 150

  • Kindertotenlieder: no. 1, nun will die Sonn; so hell aufgeh’n
  • Gutav Mahler
  • Orchestral song cycle 

Symphony. No. 6 in Bminor (Pathetique) 151

  • Symphony no. 6 in Bminor (Pathetique), op. 74, 3rd mvt. , Allegro molto vivace
  • Pitor Il’yich Tchaikovsky 
  • Symphony 


Slavonic Dances 152

  • Slavonic Dances, op. 46: No. 1 Presto 
  • Dance for piano four hands
  • Atonin Dvorak


The Stars and Stripes Forever 154

  • The Stars and Stripes Forever 
  • John Philip Sousa 
  • March 

Maple Leaf Rag 155

  • Scott Joplin 
  • Piano rag

Nocturnes: no. 1, Nuages (clouds) 156

  • Nuages from Trois Nocturnes 
  • Claude Debussy 
  • Symphonic Poem 

Prelude in G minor 157

  • Prelude in G minor, op. 23 no.5 
  • Sergei Rachmaninov 
  • Piano Prelude 

Vers la flamme 158

  • vers la flamme, op. 72
  • Alexand Scriabin 
  • tone poem for piano 

Embryons desseches 159

  • Embryons desseches, no. 3, de podophthalma, un peu vif 
  • Erik Satie 

 • Describe how Richard Wagner drew upon earlier nineteenth-century opera and what he contributed that was original.

  • developed a rich chromatic idiom 
  • system of coneying meaning through motivic assocations
  • Gesamtkunstwerk(total or collective artwork) oneness of drama in mand music, poetry, scenic, design, staging, action and music work together 
  • Wrote Rienzi a grand opera in the Meyerbeer mold. Wrote Der fliegende Hollander, a Romantic opera in the tradition of Weber. Hero is redeemed through the unselfish love of a heroine. 
  • In Tann hauser Wagner adds ne kind of flexible, semi-declamatory vocal line. . t 

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Give a basic description of Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen and explain what was unique about its first complete performance.

Wagners most collosal achiement. A cycle of four dramas. Das Rheingold, Die Walkure , Siegfried and Gotterdammerung. The first complete performance, over four eveneings took place in a theater built in Bayreuth according to Wagner’s specifications, show in Figure 28. 5. The orchestra was tucked below the stage and the hall lights were dimmed to focus the audience attention on the action the stage effects were state of the art. The ring in the the ring that the gnome fashions out of the gold which gives its wearer limitless power.

• Discuss Wagner’s treatment of leitmotives, citing works from class.

The association is established by sounding the leitmotive at the first appearance or mention of the subject, and by its reptition during subsequent appearce or citations. Often the significance of a leitmotive can be recognized from the words to which it is first sung. It can accumulate significance as it recurs in new contexts, it may recall an object in situations where the object itself is not present. Simialar motives can suggest a cneection between each other. One motive can morph to another/ motives can be contrapuntally combined. They unify and opera. Near the begining of Das Rhein gold  you have ECAF#. 


Tristan and Isolde. Motvies occur simultaneously they change instrumentation. There is chromaticism/rhythm/melodic contour. 




• Consider La Traviata, Act III, Scena and Duet (NAWM 142). How does this excerpt follow the conventions of earlier 19th-century Italian opera? How does Verdi’s music match the unfolding drama? (Give specific examples.)

a woman trapped be her livelihood as a courtesan, her desire to escapethat life and be loved as an equal, the social mores that keep her in her place, and the tuberculosis that threatens her life- link the opera. In the final act Verdi uses rossini structure for duets. Scena(recittative, temp d’attacco(opening section), slow cantabilie, tempo di mezzo (contrasting dramatic section, and fast dabaletta. Full texture in orgechstra duing the scenea and violetta d nhe r made engage in recitative like dialon, when aflredo enters the conversation is altenating tune ful song. then the catablile when Aflredo and Viletta look forward to life together and is as direct as a popular song AABB with coda. The tempo di mezzo offers contrasts as Violetta collapsies. Then emotions entisfy in the caballeta where Violetta betwails ther misfortune and alfredo begs her to calm herself.

• Explain what musical characteristics were used to signify “exotic” people or places in Bizet’s Carmen and Puccini’s Madama Butterfly.

In Madame butterfly Puccini uses a hybrid style to characterize his Japanese character butterfly. This is constrasted with the unmarked universal style he uses to characterize Pinkerton, her lover. He creates Butterfly’s hybrid style by quoting two songs from Rudolf Dittrich’s Nippon Gakufu a collection of Japanese melodies arraged for piano that was published in Germainy in 1894. Puchhini uses the opening of Ha-uta and then part of Sakura. By evoking a Westernized Japnese style Butterfly presents hereself as a charming exotic woman for Pinkerton.  


IN the scene where Carmen seduces Don Jose. Carmen’s exotic allure and deductive power are clearly conveyed in the music. Her song is itself a seguidilla. The orchestra imitates the pluck-and-strum accompaniment of a Spanish guitar. Carmen adds the cadential melismas typical of seguidillas, and the harmony includes Phyrgian cadences that were associated with Spanish flamenco music, marked by a descending half step in the bass. the refrain portrays Carmein as both slippery and entrancing, in part through the harmony, which begins as if in F# majro, moves by halfstep to an E-minor seventh chord, cadences on Damjor, continues around the circle of fifths to C major and finally sips down chromatically to close on Bminor, the real key of the song. The verse centers on D the relative major, but both haromony and melody emphasize half 0step motion adapted from the flamenco cadence. 



Describe Brahms’s use of developing variation in his Quintet for Piano and Strings in F Minor, Op. 34, Mvt. 1.

  • The lyrical opening idea is prsented unharmonized in octaves. Each measure varies the presceding one in a phrase that gradually grows from inor-mode wistfulness to major-mode warmth. 
  • Suddenly the piano motive in sixteenth notes who is character is quite different but whose melody is a variant of the opening idea in diminiution. 
  • Brahms repeats this motive in sequence against slashing chords in the strings. The progress of this sequence relates back to the opening idea in a hidden manner: the repeated high notes in the piano (Db, F, Ab, G, and F) form a retrograde of the melody in measure 1. 
  • Then the opening motive returns in the strings, fortissimio and more aggressive, but is developed in a new way. 
    The rising half step in the original motive now turns downard and through repetition and emphasis this descending half step becomes a motive in its own right. This half-step motive is picked up by the piano and treated in sequence while the imperious sizteenth -note motive ricohets back and forth betseen the instruments. 
  • A cadence in measure 22 brings the first theme to a close, and the transition begins with a new, sweetly expressive melody that combines the half-step motive witha  figure whose rhythm and melodic contour dervie from the opening idea. This melody is repeated and developed overan accompaniment suffesed with triplets. 
  • Second theme continues the texture of two against three while presenting elements heard before in new variants and combinations. 
  • The closing theme also relates back to the opening idea. Both the rhythm and the rise and fall of its first phrase are expanded variations of the movement’s opening motive. A the closing theme continues, a three-note descending figure first heard in measure 77, is repeated serveral times in dialouge between the piano and strings. Only when this figure is reversed at measure 91 does it become aparent that the descending figure is a retrograde of the rising stepwise motion in the opening theme. Thus, all the themes and several other elements in the exposition are derivesd from the opening measure through the process of developing variation. 

• Describe how Brahms drew upon works and techniques of earlier composers in the finale of his Symphony No. 4 in E Minor.

The finale is a chaconne or passacaglia, a Baroque form. The key of E minor and some aspects of both the theme and certain variations appear to stem from Dieterich Buxtehude’s Ciaccona in E minor for organ. The idea of returning to or echoingearlier variations may dervie in part from Francois Couperin’s Rondeau-Passacaille from the Eight Ordre, a work Brahms edited for the Couperin complete works edition. Brahms adapted the bass ostinato in the movement from the final chorus of J. S. Bach’s cantata Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, BWV 150

Another apparent model is Bach’s chacconne finale from Partita No. 2 in D Minor for Solo Violin, BWV 1004. Both finales are in a minor key with a middle section in the parallel major; many variations in both are grouped in pairs; and the return to minor is signaled with a reappearance of the opening idea and texture. There are even details of figuration that the two pieces share, all characteristic of Baroque music; sarabande rhthm, stressing the second beat with a dotted quater note followed by an eight note, dotted rhythms and bariolage a figuration in which the violinist alternates rapidly between strings, playing a repeated note on one and a moving lin on the other. 

By endingwith a set of variations, unusual for a symphony finale,Brahms recalls Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony, the most famous previous symphony to end with a variations movement. In both finales, the bass line is first presented in the upper and middle registers, only later being placed in the bass. Brahms also groups variations into large sections that suggest aspects of sonata form. 

• Consider Strauss’s Don Quixote. Explain how the composer depicts characters and episodes from Cervantes’ novel, citing musical examples.

  • Bungling hero Don Quixote who imagines himself a knight in the days of chivalry; his horse, Rosinante; and his servant, Sancho Paza, who plays the role of qsquire. Solo cello states kinghts theme in Dm minor, echoed and joined by solo violin and english horn. The theme soars, then gradually sinks, then soars again in analogy to Quixote’s ever frustrated but renewed idealism. 
  • Bass clarinet and tenor tuba present Sanch Panza’s theme in F major, using a turning gesture and wide leaps to suggest the lumbering, roly poly servant on his donkey. 
  • Variety of motives in the sola vioal suggest Don Quixotes horse Rosinante 
  • There is abstracting and abstruse conversation between cello and bass clarinet. The tilting of windmills is shown by fast repeated nots played col legno, with the wood of the bo, in the cellos and flutes and piccolo. The relentsles turning is a repeaded downward aprpeggiation by thirds. 
  • In the second variation depicts the encounter with the sheep with flutter-tounging in the brass and winds to imitiate the bleating of the sheep.Straus anticipates a technique that Arnold Schoenberg called tone color melody( Klangfarbenmelodie) in which instruments maintaing constant pitches drop in and out of an orchestra texture, creating a melody of tone colors. 

• Explain how Mahler conveys Ruckert’s poetry musically in “Nun will die Sonn’ so hell aufgeh’n” from Kindertotenlieder.

  • In the song the text is not comforting but bitterly ironic. The speaker’s child has died during the night but the sun shines anyway as if nothing had happened; the sorrow is his aslone, and neither the world nor the sun seems to care
  • Malher heightens the ironies. The music is nmostly a thin texture of two or three contrapuntal lines sometimes over drones or simple ostinatos, as if the few instruments that are playing at any o ne moment were alone in a vast world. The counterpoint does not follow traditional rules, but instead emphasiszes plaintive dissonances. The opening duet sounds tark and the aparently joyful words ” now will the sun so brightly rise: are set to a mounrful descending melody composed primarly of half steps.  Yet for the next line whicch tells of the misfortune that occured during the night, the music slowly shifts to major through a rising chromatic melody over a reassuring rocking figure, and the cadence is in a radiatn D major.  The mis alight ment of mood between text and music makes clear that the sun is not a source of joy but an uncaring and even mocking observer. 
  • The orchestra interlude leads to second  couplete where mismatch of mood is gone. The misfortune matches the mourneful melody. and the D maor cadence is the sentiment athat the sun shines o everyone.
  • The music seems like it will repeat once more but instead the singer inverts the melody and heads in a new direction that third couplet is the only one in the poem. The music reaches a new height of dissonance, chromaticism and instesity an dthe the new music suggest a path out of dispair. repeates the words to the joy-light of the world to mountful music first heard in the orchestra. 

• Discuss the musical rivalry that took place in nineteenth-century Russia. Who were the parties involved? What were their differences?

There was intense musical rivalry between 2 camps. The conservatories (Anton and Nikoly Rubinstein) who supported strict academic training and the Free School of Music/The Mighty 5 who were apposed to institutionalism. Vladimir Stason was a advocate of mighty 5.

• What influences did the Mighty Five draw upon in their development of a national musical style?

The Mighty 5 (moguchay kuchka)

  • Balahirev, Borodin, Cai, Musorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov
  • reaction against foreign dominated musical establishment
  • fused Russian Folk Song , modal and exotic scales, folk polyphony with Western European influences 
  • musical nationalism (inspired by Glinka)
  • Balakirev’s “Overture on the Themes of Three Russian Folk Songs’ was inspired by Glinka’s Kamarinskayer. There were similarities in form, tonality, quotation of Russian Folk Song
  • Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar natrualistic plot and assimialtion of Russina folk music  

• Describe how Musorgsky’s Boris Godunov reflects realism and Russian nationalism.

  • Based on a play by Aleksander Pushkin
  • imitates russian sppech, in his life like musical diepiction  of gestures and in the choral scenes 
  • has leitmotives
  • usues realism in naturalistic declamation
  • He set words naturally following the rhythm and pacing of speech as closely as possible” almost always syllabic, with accented syllables on strong beats, often higher and louder than the surrounding notes. Seeks melodic profile closer to russian folksongs. 
  • Writes as a serious of episodes related to a central figure instead of normal story
  • choral scenes
  • melodic lines include elements of folksongs
  • disntantly related melodies joined by a common tone
  • series of tableux rather than contiuously develpoed 
  • similar to 19th century russian novel
  • influence modernist composers 

• How did composers of the United States try to develop a distinctive American sound? Discuss the works of Amy Beach, citing at least two of her compositions and how each one responded to this challenge in a different way.

  • Composers had varying views on nationalism. Parkbelieved composers should write the best music they could. Chadwick developed an idiom laced with American traits such as pentatonic melodies and characteristic rhythms from Protestant psalmody and African-Carribean deances, used in his Symphon No.2 in BbMajrror and  Symphonic sketches. MacDowell wrote Second Indian Suite fro orchestra based on Native America melodies. 
  • Amy beach wrote Gaelic Symphony  on irish tunes and String quartet  on American Indian melodies. Based the themes of the first and third movements of her own Piano Quintet on a theme from Brah,’s Pianon quintet, op. 34. Her voice merges forcefully in the third and last movement moving byeond the Brahmsian music of the first movment to embrace late ninettehn-century chromatic harmony, with usual inversions, augmented triads, and colorful nonchord tones. 

• Consider Debussy’s Nocturnes: No. 1, Nuages. Identify those aspects of the work that are characteristic of the composer’s music in general, and discuss what influences may have inspired the composer to develop this unique musical idiom.

  • Like all of Debussy’s orchestral music, Nuages is a play of musical images, each characterized by instrumental color, motive, pith collection, rhythm, and register. In the course of the movement, images are juxtaposed, superimposed, repeated, and altered, creating a kind of musical experience that seems almost visual, rather than following the older litearary or rhetorical model of music that presents, develops, and recapitulates themes. 
  • Juxtaposed with or superimposed upon the opneing image is a motive in the English hnonr, set off in a meter of ttis own 44 against 64 in the other instruments that quickly rises and slowy deescends through a portion of the octatonic scale spanning a tritone. horn answers with a tritone later. 
  • The middle section has a more exotic source. Debussy heard a gamelan, a Javanese orchestra made up mainly of gons and percussion in Paris in 1889. He simulated the gamelan texture in Nuages by given ght flute and harp a simiple pentatonic tune, analogous to Javanese themse, while the other instruments supply a static background. 

• Explain how Vaughan Williams and Sibelius responded to the need to create a distinctive musical style that represented their musical traditions. What did they draw upon?

Ralph Vaughn Williams(1872 – 1958)

·      influenced by folk songs, English hymnody Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (1910)

·      based upon melody of English composer Thomas Tallis (1505 – 85)

o   shows how he drew on him tonal heritage he brings in the melody but also imitates 16th century English music.

o   polyphonic string texture

·      imitates 16th – century English music by featuring antiphonal playin by separate string ensembles (vocal practice) and a polyphonic string texture that is reminiscent of English fantasies for consort of viols.

·      common-practice tonality + archaic modality (Phrygian melody, plagal cadences, pentatonicism

·      Phrygian quality.


Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)

·      Finnish nationalist composer

·      He looked to the Finnish national literary epic, the Kalevala, for subjects and texts. He also borrowed the recitation patterns of the verse itself.

·      Four Legends from the Kalevala, op. 22 (1893-95), set of 4 tone poems inspired by Kalevala

·      The Swan of Tuonela

·      “Tuonela, the land of death, the hell of Finnish mythology, is surrounded by a large river with black waters and a rapid current, on which the Swan of Tuonela floats majestically, singing.”

·      Finlandia (1900), symphonic poem

o   imbedded musical reference to patriotic song

o   banned by Russian authorities


• Describe how Scriabin responded to the need for a distinctive musical language at the beginning of the twentieth century, citing musical examples.

·      last 5 piano sonatas dispense with tonality and key signatures. Instead, they use a chord that servs as the sonata’s tonic

NAWM 158 Scriabin, Vers la flame (Toward the Flame), op. 72 (1914)



·      Octatonic referential sonority

·      theme B chord of stacked 3rds

·      movement by major or minor 3rds

·      final sonority combines  stacked 3rds and 4ths

·      harmonic color that does not require resolution


Piece unfolds as a series of textures delinitating four large sections that place the two thematic elements in new contexts. Not tonal in the convential sense. Many dissonance do not requite resoultion provide harmonic color that serves to distinguish one block from another. 

• What composition inspired Brahms’s Quintet for Piano and Strings in F Minor, Op. 34. Make a brief comparison of the two works, pointing out at least two of their similarities.

Brahms’s Quintet was inspired by Shuchbert’s  quintet. When he first composed the piece as a string quintet the scoring was the same. The first movment is a long sonata form whose esposition features three different keys and a melodic detail near the beginning forcasts the unual key of the second theme. The same is true here: the opening theme featrues aprominent melodic motion from F to Db and the three themes of the eexposition are in F mino, C # minor and Db major. 



Possibly influence by Schubert’s quintet in C major, D. 956

What do they have in common?

       originally scored for string quintet (with 2 cellos)

       melodic idea forecasts unusual 3 key exposition


       opening theme contained C major/minor opposition

       – 3 key exposition (CE flat)


       opening theme outlines melodic motion from F to D flat

       3 key exposition(Fm, C#m, Dflat) 

Before the completion of his First Symphony in 1876, what was Brahms’s largest scale work?

Ein Deutsches Requiaum, Op. 45 

• In the Prelude to Tristan and Isolde, Wagner foreshadows the tragic ending of the opera by creating an atmosphere of tension/yearning. Describe five ways in which the composer creates tension in this piece.

  1. Silence
  2. Defaince of the traditional harmony 
  3. variation throughout overall formal structrue
  4. suspensions and apoggitura
  5. chromaticism
  6. tempo
  7. rising melodic countour
  8. major minor duality 

• Who are the Wagnerians? Name specific composers, and explain why they are referred to as “the Wagnerians.”

Liszt, Bruckner, Wolf, Strauss, Mahler. History tends to focus on inovation. Brahms wrote absolute music. Wagner wrote program music. There was a nineteenth century dispute. Who was the right heir to beethovens legacy.

• Identify the genre and inspiration for Liszt’s Les Preludes. How did the composer unify the work?

Listz Les Preludes was about the great question, love storm, pastoral calm, battle and victory. He had forward looking harmonic language and thematic transformationa and symphonic poem.

• Had you attended a performance by the U.S. Marine Band between 1880 and 1892, who would you have seen conducting, and what repertory would you have likely encountered?

John Phillop Sousa “The March King” 


• What does Scott Joplin’s Maple Leaf Rag have in common with band music, and how did ragtime influence the songs of Tin Pan Alley (give one example).

Scott Joplin had a 2/4 meter in march form. THe lhand had steady pulse. Tin pan ally adopded ragtime for example Irving Berlin’s “Alexander’s Ragtime Band”

• Name three important figures in early sound recording.

Thomas Edison, Phonogroah 

His method was purely or acoustic or mecahnical 


Alexander Gramm bell, gramphopohen 

Emile Berliner, gramophone with orginal cylinder that was replaced by flat disk. 



leading motive used by wagner, associations and transformations
Tristan Chord
the first chord FBD#G# is a strinking sonortity is at first uncertain given the lack of ahromic context used through the opera and instant recognizable when it appears.


The Bayreuth Festspielhaus or Bayreuth Festival Theatre[1] (GermanBayreuther Festspielhaus,pronounced [?ba??????t? ?f?st?pi?l?ha??s]) is an opera housenorth of Bayreuth, Germany, dedicated solely to the performance of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner. It is the venue for the annual Bayreuth Festival, for which it was specifically conceived and built.
alliteration, the repitition of speech sounds used in Wagner’s ring cycle 

Richard Strauss 

setting of one act play by OScar Wilde 

based on the beblical story of Herod and John the Baptist 

censored because it challende the conventional morality

letit motives and extreme dissonance