Post Romanticism

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 Germany & Austria


Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler


     Romantic trditionalists influenced by Richard Wagner

     Tonal music, but became increasingly more chromatic

     Large forms (symponies & concertos)




Claude Monet  Impression: Sunrise

     A movement initially developed by painters

Claude Debussy

     exotic scales of nonwestern origin: Chromatic, Whole tone, and Pentatonic

     Ninth chords(5 notes built in 3rds) waivering between major and minor modes

     Subtle Orchestral colors

     Short programmatic forms (preludes &










Literary Movement




Stephane Marlarme & Paul Verlaine




influenced by Edgar Allen Poe









*reaction to impressionism





 Second Viennese School

Arnold Schoenburg, Alban Berg, and Anton Webern

 atonal expressionism and serial music


Schoenburg used Sprechstimme (sung and spoken) and Klangfarbenmelodie


Webern Klangfarbenmelodie (tone color melody) and total serialized music


BergTonal tradition and Wagner’s leitmotif techniques

a rapid sliding up or down the musical scale