Andersen is “the most famous performance artist in the world.” What’s that?
Performance art refers to avant-garde or conceptual art which grew out of visual arts.
What does Anderson describe herself as?
a “storyteller”
In what ways did (does) Anderson use the violin in her pieces?
Anderson uses the violin as a prop. (Filling it with water and playing)
What does she call “the whole difference between art and ideas”?

The disction between ways and means.


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“Art is a sensual experience, I never check the facts.”

Miserere mei, Deus =

“Have mercy upon me, O God.”


(Miserere – Arvo Part)

Arvo Part’s ;tintinnabuli; style =
What country is Part from and what was significant about it?
P;rt is Estonian. His is a small Baltic country that was annexed into the Soviet Union and ;made Russian; against its cultural disposition.
Who’s music was banned in the Soviet Union until the cultural thaw 1957-58?
Pärt’s 12-tone music was called?
“avant-garde bourgeois”
Part’s spiritualism was considered…?
Some of Part’s influences were:

Gregorian Chant


Josquin Desprez

“Some hear …minimalism…” How is it like minimalists, and how is it unlike? (Part’s music)
In the beginning it sounds steady and has a slow transformation.
Part’s spiritual music is meant for…?
What are the “melodic voice” and the “tintinnabuli” voice in Part’s music?
The M-voices = subjective/suffering world; the T-voice = objective realm/forgiveness.
What are the two possible meanings of the title (Quartet for the End of Time)–religious and musical?

religious-the desire to express the marvelous aspects of the Faith.


musical-his own attempt to destroy the usual time divisions of traditional music.

Who were Messiaen’s most famous students?
Stockhausen and Boulez.
What is synesthesia?
associating color with sound (Messiaen)
Messiaen had inspiration from 3 sources. What were they?
1)his Catholic faith
2)his love of nature
3)his susceptibility to human love-Tristan and Isolde
term: isorhythm?
medieval theory
term: nonretrogradable rhythms
palindromes. eg “Madam I’m Adam”

Musically, Copland had an ability to…?

“shift gracefully between extremes.”
Copland’s seminal experience was studying with ______ in Paris in the ‘20’s, when Paris was the hotbed of new ideas.
Nadia Boulanger
C’s earlier music was _______, but he developed the ______ style partly in response to “an increasing dissatisfaction with the relations of the music-loving public and the living composer.”
Appalachian Spring was composed for the great choreographer ___________
Martha Graham
The use of the Quaker song “_________” was typical of the Americana style. (Copland)
“Simple Gifts”
Copland also turned to ________ techniques in the 1950’s, saying he’d “gone as far as I could” with Americana.
Term: aleatoric
element of composition is left to chance (Cage)
Cage was a tireless innovator in music for percussion ensemble. What’s that got to do with the “prepared piano” pieces?
Cage put percussion instruments into the grand piano to alter the paino’s sound.
“Nonintentional music.” (Cage)
Instead of producing masterpieces, he favored “a Purposeful purposelessness” which eliminates the composer’s ego from the process.
The “notorious” piece 4’33”. (Cage)(1952)What was it about?
It was inspired by the solid white paintings of Robert Rauschenberg.
Describe the score and structure of In C. and how it relates to canon.
repeated eighth notes and it relates to canon by imitating the melody over each other
Riley’s stages of development:

Small-town jazz player goes to San Francisco for college.


Meets experimentalist La Monte Young.


Goes to Europe and becomes “hippie”.


Goes to Morocco (early 60’s) and discovers the music of a different culture. Experiments with electronic music 


Later personal development came through studying in India with master singer Pandit Pran Nath.

TEMPERAMENT! What’s this mean? (Johnston)
a system of tuning which slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation in order to meet other requirements of the system.
 “equal temperament” vs. “just intonation” What are the strengths and weaknesses of each?

Equal temperament has the adv. of allowing instruments like the piano to be played in all keys w/out the necessity of retuning, but the perfect 5ths are slightly flat and the major 3rds are too wide.


Just intonation has all intervals of the scale tuned in perfect mathematical relationships to each other, but it only works with one key at a time.