musical comedy featuring songs and dance numbers in styles drawn from popular music in the context of a spoken play with a comic or romantic plot. English theater manager George Edwardes established the genre by combining elements of variety shows, comic operas and plays in a series of production at the Gaiety Theatre in London in the 1890’s. These were soon staged in the United States, and the New York Theater district on Broadway became the manin center., along with Londons West End.
Style popular from the 1890’s through the 1910’s that featured syncopated rhythm against a regular, marchlike bass. This syncopation apparently derived from the clapping Juba of American blacks, a servival of African drumming and hand clapping. The emphasis on offbeats in one rhythmic layer against stedy beats in another reflects the cmplex cross-rhythms common in African music. Leading composer of this style was Scott Joplin.
(Songs on the Death of Children 1901-4). Written by Mahler.
Gustav Mahler
Known for as a leading Austro0German composer of symphonies after brahms and Bruckner and one of the Great master of the song for voice and orchesta. He made his living as a conductor, renowned for his dynamism, precision and expressivity. After conduction at numerous opera houses, he directed the Vienna Opera for 10 years, the Metropolitan Opera in New York for 3 years and the New York Philharmonic for 2 years. Was a prime influence on Schoenberg, Berg, Webern and other Viennese composers.
Richard Strauss
After he established himself in the late romantic period as a leading compser of symphonic poems after Liszt, he turned to opera, seeking to inherit Wagner’s mantle. Like Wagner, he geightened both musical coherence and dramatic power through the use of leitmotives and the association of certainkeys with particular characters. First great opera was Salome which was about the death of John the Baptist.
Manuel de Falla
Spanish nationalist composer who developed a diverse nationalism that sresisted the merely exotic. He collected and arranged national folk songs, introducing a wider public to the variety in the folk tradition.
Gustov Holst
English composer. Wrote band music but was also know for his nationalist style. Influenced not only by English song but also by Hindu sacred texts, which he set in Choral Hymns from the Rig Veda. But he is best known for a non-nationalist work, the orchesral suite, The Planets which became the source for many conventions of scoring for movies and television shows set in space.
Vaughn Williams

Was more nationalist in style than Holst. His works include nine symphonies and other orchestral pieces, film scores, works for band, songs, operas and many choral pieces. Drew inspiration not only from folk songs but also from English hymnody and earlier English composers such as Thomas Tallis and Henry Purcell. Studied with Ravel.

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Known for blending art music with practical music. His national quality comes from his incorporation or imitation of British folk tunes and his assimilation of the modal harmony of 16th century English composers.

Leos Janacek
Worked in the genres of Western art music, especially opera but sought a specific national style. Collected and edited folk music from his native region of Moravia, studied the rhythms and inflections of peasant speech and song, and devised a highly personal idiom based on them.
Jean Sibelius

Finnish composer. At the time, Finland was part of the Russian Empire until 1917 but was culturally dominated by Sweden, which had ruled it for centuries. He was raised speaking Swedish, then as a young man became a committed Finnish patriot learning the language and changing his name from the Swedish ‘Johan’.

Became well known as a nationalist composer writing symphonic poems, concertos.

Sibelius is known for his original form. In addition to reworking sonata form, in novel ways, he used divices that have been called “rotational form” repeated cylcling through a series of thematic elements that are varied each time and “teleological genesis”. He generates a theme from motivic fragments, sometimes over an entire movement or symphony.  The stages are 1) its first appearance, 2)a statement midway, when the first half of the theme is clear but the second half has not yet found its footing; and 3) the final, definitive form.

Sergei Rachmaninov
Russian composer but made his home in US after Russian revolution. Vertuoso pianist. Held on to classical and romantic traditions but with a popular twist.
Alexander Scriabin
Classmate of Rachmoninov at Moscow Conservatory but went a different path. Wrote nocturnes, preludes, etudes and mazurkas in the manner of Chopin, then gradually absorbed the chromaticism of Lixzt and Wagner. Gradually evolved a compex hearmonic vocabulary all his own. In addition to piano music he wrote symphonies and other orchestral works. Uses chords resembling Wagners “Tristan Chord” yet they are treated as static objects and do not project a yearning twoard a resolution.
Tonal vs. Post-Tonal

Many composers of the early century still found a way to compose tonal music with new flavors and possibilities within the tonality and never abandoned it.

Other composers such as Debussy, Falla, Janacek and Scriabin as well as Messeian, Schoenberg, Berg, Webern moved beyond tonal practice in the early 1900’s as each developed a personal musical language that followed its own rules. Even when the tonal center can be identified,, it no longer makes sense to describe the music as tonal, because the harmonic language diverges too far from common practice. The most general term for such music is post-tonal, which embraces all the new ways composers found to organize pitch, from atonality to neotonality.

French term originated by French military used to describe an advance group that prepared the way for the main army. The term was then adopted in the mid-nineteent century for and by French artists who saw themselves as a vangaurd exploring new territory. While sometimes applied to anyone who departs from convention, or to modernists such as Schoenberg, the term is antagonistic and nihilistic – for art that seeks to overthrow accepted aesthetics and start fresh. These composers have challenged the very concept of deathless classics, asking their listeners to focus instead on what is happening in the present. Their movement is not marked by shared elements of style but by shared attitudes.
Erik Satie

Satiristic Avant-garde composer who wittily upends the conventional ideas. Instead of the romantic notions of expressivity and individuality and variety, his pieces are all ostenatiously plain and unemotional, using the same slow tempo, similar modal harmonies and puzzling dynamics.

Wrote directions in his music for his players such as withdraw your hand and put it in your pocket, or “that’s wonderful!” or “heavy as a sow” used to satirize the music of his contemporaries in their descriptive and programmatic music.

Wrote pieces titled “Three pieces on the Form of a Pear” which was actually seven pieces; “Automatic Discriptions”; Dessicated Embryos which was a moking “quotation from the celebrated mazurka of Shubert (actually it was Chopin’s funeral march).

He was a signifiant inspiration for the American avant-garde composers Virgil Thomson and John Cage as well as French composers Milhaud and Poulenc.


Term originated in Italy. Painter Luigi Russolo argued in dead earnest in The Art of Noises: Futurist Manifesto that musical sounds had become stale and that the modern world of machines required a new kind of music based on noise. He divided noises into six families, then he ad his colleagues built new instruments called intuonarumori (noise makers) each capable of producing a particular kind of noise over a range of at least an octave and a half. They composed pieces for these instruments, alone or with traditional instruments, and presented them in concert between 1913 -21 in Italy, London, and Paris.

The movement continued even through 1930s and anticipated or stimulated many later developments, including electronic music, mocrotonal composition and the pursuit of new instrumental timbres.

Arnold Schoenberg

(1874-1951) Committed to continuing in the German classical tradition and felt compelled to move beyond tonality to atonality and later twelve-tone method. A modernist.

His Tonal Works

Began writng tonal music in late Romantic style. The chormatic idiom of his first important work, a tone poem for string sextet titled Verklarte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899) grew from that of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, while the symphonic poem Pelleas und Melisande draws from Mahler and Strauss. The huge cantata Gurrelieder (Songs of Gurre) outdoes Wagnmer in emotional fervor and Mahler and Strauss in the complexity of its scoring.  Looked toward Brahms in the developing variation and applied it in his own works such as the String Quartet no. 1 in D Minor Op. 7.

in 1908 he began to comose pieces that avoided establishing any not as a tonal center. He did not like the term Atonal but he felt compelled to abandon tonality in part because the heightened chromaticism, distant modulations, and prolonged dissonances of music since Tristan had weakened the pull of the tonic and making its declaration a the end of a piece seem increasingly arbitrary.

In 1921-23 he writes his first twelve tone work Piano Suite, Op 25.

Was teacher of Berg and Webern the three known as the second Viannese School

Chromatic Saturation

Method used by Hugo Wolf where he used all twelve chromatic notes while maintaining tonality.

The appearance of a note that has not recently been sounded can give a sense of moving forward harmonically. As a corollary, once the twelfth chromatic note has appeared, there can be a sense of fullness and completion, which Wolf in a tonal context and Schoenberg in an atonal context usd to reinforce the feeling of completion a phrase.

Schoenberg followed Mahler in treating instrum,ents soloistically and in swiftly alternating timbres to produce a great variety of colors. This opera is the height of expressionism in music using exaggerated gestures, angular melodies, and unrelenting dissonance to convey the tortured emotions of the protagonist. Lacks any reference to traditional form.
Pierrot Lunaire

The early stage of Schoenberg’s return to form. A cycle of twenty one songs drawn from a larger petic cycle by te belgian symbolist poet Ablert Giraud. Schoenberg scored the text,translated into German, for a woman’s voice with a chamber ensemble of five performers who play nine different instruments. In keeping with the pricniple of nonrepetition, the combination of instruments in each movement is unique. The voice declaim s the text in Sprechstimme (speaking voice), approximating the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech, while following the notated rhythm exactly  an innovative idea that blends the traditional notions of song and melodrama. Pierot is a clown who suffers gruesome visions provoked by a moonbeam that takes many shapes.

Neoclassical in that it takes on elements of traditional forms and genres, icluding a waltz , a serenade, a barcarolle, and an aria over a walking bass, reminiscent of Bach.

Alban Berg

Student of Schoenberg His twelve tone methods wee more approachable than his teacher’s.  His claim to fame was Wozzeck and his Violin Concerto.


Anton Webern
Another student of Schoenberg. Earned a PhD from University of Vienna in muisicology. Believed that music involves the presentation of ideas that can be expressed in no other way; that it operates according to rules of order based on natural law rather than taste; that great art does what is necessary, not arbitrary; that evolution in art is also necessary;  and that history, and thus musical idioms and practices,  canmove only forward, not backward.
A concept created by Schoenberg meaning (tone-color melody) in which changes of tone color are perceived as parallel to changing pitches in a melody.
Igor Stravinsky

His career consisted of 3 Periods:


Russian Period

Wrote his most popular works during this period: the ballets, The Firebirds (1910), Petrushka (1910-11) and The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du pritemps, 1911-13., all commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev for the Ballets Russes in Paris.

In Patrushka, he introduced several of the stylistic traits that became closely identified with him. The interuptions and juxtaposition of blocks, which he absorbed from the Russian practie of musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov, is here linked to the visual juxtapositions of ballet. He also used the borrowing of Russian folk tunes. Here he developed the famous Petrushka chord combining F# and C major triads, both part of the same octatonic scale.

During this period, he used techniques such as Layering – a building up of textures by layering two or more independent strand of music on top of each other; Discontinuity and connection – the patterms within successive blocks are different creating discontinuity, yet the  collection of pitches being used differs by only one new note, leading a strong sense of continuity; Dissonance – most dissonance are based on the scales used in Russion classical music, such as the diatonic and octatonic collections. a staking of two chords a step apart; and timbre linked with motive and variation – he often identified a musical idea with a particular timbre such as the pounding of a chord with the strings with horn reinforcements and the English horn ostinato recurs only in that insrument throughout; and Stark timbres

Used these techniques from the ballets in his small ensemble works as well.

NeoClassical Period

In 1919 Diaghilev asked him to orchestrate pieces by the eighteenth century composer Pergolesi to accompany a new ballet, Pulcinella. While the music was intact, he reworked the pieces applying his distictive stylistic traits.

One of these pieces is Symphony of Psalms for mixed chorus and orchestra.

Serial Period

After Schoenbergs death, the twelve tone method was expanded by younger composers and became referred to as serial music, serializing not only pithc but rhythms and dynamics as well. After 1953, he adapted serial techniques in his music. His best know serial works were In memoriam Dylan Thomas, Threni for voices and orchestra, and Movements for piano and orchestra.

Represents a broad movement from the 1910s to the 1950s in which composers revived, imitated, or evoked the styles, genres and forms of pre-Romantic music, especially that of the eighteenth century, then called Classic. The movement grew in part from a rejection of Romanticism, whose associations with high emotions, irrationality, yearning, individualism and nationalism were all suspect in the wake of the wanton destruction of World War I. Stravinsky was recognized as the leader of this movement.
Charles Ives

(1874-1954) Created a personal modernist idiom by synthesizing international and regional musical traditions like Bartok. Was fluent compoers in four distinct shperes: American vernatcular music, Protestant church music, European classical music, and experimental music, of which he was the first major exponent. In his matur music he combined elements from all four, using the mutlipicity of styles as a rhetorical device to convey rich musical meaning.

Was the first to use polytonality.

Musical Collage
Technique used by Ives and other modernist composer where multiple tunes are layered on top of each other and woven together like a patchwork quilt.
These variety shows were preferred over the similar Vadeville shows. Concieved as a complete show made up primarily of musical numbers that often included many performers including dancers. The premier series was the Ziegfeld Follies assembled each year by producer Florenz Ziegfeld. These were the craze for large cities such as New York. Irving Berlin wrote music for these shows.
Several operettas were successful in the 20s such as Sigmund Romergs The student Prince, but the genre was rapidly being repaced with this new genre. Tese were complex collaborations, with different artists repsonsible for the music, lyrics, book (the spoken word of the play), chreography, staging, sets and costumes. Some were primarily vehicles for star entertainers, featuring new popular songs that werer framed bya loose plot, a structure reminiscent of the singer-centered and aria-focused Italian opera of the mid seventeenth to early eighteenth centuries. Yet there was an increasingly interest in making it more integrated with the music, show in which the musical numbers are closely related to the story, which is plot-driven rather than focused on the performers.
Tin Pan Alley

Jocular name for a district in New York where numerous publishers specializing in popular songs were located from the 1880s  through the 1950s. Became an American style of popular song for that era.

The golden age was in the 1910s. By this time several types of these songs had solidified, including waltz, ragtime, and novelty songs. Most of these songs followed a standard form of one or more verses followed by a thrity-two measure chorus in an AABA, ABAB or ABAC pattern. The fucus wasincreasingly on the chorus, where songwriters placed their catchiest rhythms and melodic ideas. Iving Berlin was one of the most prolific songwriters writing songs like God Bless America and White Christmas.

Types of Blues

Classic blues – sung primarily by African-American women singers such as Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith. The classic blues singers joined aspects of oral tradition with elements of popular song thanks in part ot W C Handy known as the father of the blues. Handy did not invent the blues but as a publisher, he introduced blues songs in sheet music form as early as 1912, this taking advantage of both the genre’s new popularity and the booming sheet music industry.

Delta Blues – Primarily came from the Missisippi Delta region and is associated primarily with male African-American singers and guitarists. In comparison to classic blues, which tended to conform to the conventions of popular song genres, delta blues are more directly rooted in oral traditions, resulting in greater flexibility of textural and musical form and harmonic choices.  Many of the Delta blues singers landed in Chicago.

New Orleans Jazz
The leading style of jazz in the preriod just after WWI. Ths style was named after the city whee it originated. Centers on group variation of a given tune, either improvised or in the same spontaneous style. The result is a counterpoint of melodic lines, alternating with solos during which the rest of the ensemble provides rhythmic and harmonic background. it incorporates the African American Gospel tradition. The development of the style was enhanced by the rivalry between musically lterate Creoles and musically untutored African Americans, who possessed great imprvisational skill. Leading musicians included Louis Armstrong and pianist Jelly Roll Marton.
Jazz Chorus
In New Orleans jazz, the piece begins with the statment of the melody over a particular harmonic progression, then that same progression repeats several times while various soloists or combinations of instruments play over it. This term is the repetition of these soloists.
diegetic music
sometimes referred to as source music. Music that is heard or performed by the characters themselves in film.
nondigetic music
sometimes called underscoring. This is background music that conveys to the viewer a mood or other aspects of a scene or  character in film.
Movie Musicals
1930’s was the golden age. Beginning in 1929 films like Rombergs Viennese Nights, Gershwins Delicious, and Shall We Dance, Berlins Top Hat and others were top billing. The Wizard of Oz, by Harold Arlen, was premiered for film in 1939 featuring color photography.
Les Six
Group of younger composers absorbed in the strong influence of neoclassicism but sought to escape the old political dichotomies. Included Honegger (Pacific 231), Darius milhaud, Francis Poulenc, Germaine Tailleferre, Georges Auric and louis Durey. Parrelled to the Russian Mighty Five in Russia by a French journalist who saw them as seeking to free French music from Foreign domination. They drew inspiration from Satie. The group did not remain together long. The Group collaborated in joint concerts, an album of piano music, and Cocteaus absurdist play with ballet Le maries de la tour Eiffel (Newlyweds on the Eiffel Tower, 1921). Durey left even before the ballet project started and none of them fully conformed to Cocteaus program. Instead, they each wrote lighly individual works that drew on a wide range of influences, including but not limited to neoclassicism.
Neue Sachlichkeit

New Objectivity or New Realism. This slogan represented the new trend emerging from the oppositon to theemotional intensity of the late Romantics and the expressionism of Schoenberg and Berg. The phrase was first used in art criticism and quickly adopted by musicians. Krenek (1900-1991) said the New Objective opposed complexity and promoted the use of familiar elements, borrowing from popular music and jazz or from Classical and Baroque procedures.

In their view, music should be objective in its expression, as in the Baroque concept of the affections, rather than sujective or extreme. The notion of music as autonomous was rejected. Instead it should be widely accessible, communicate clearly and draw connections to events and concern of the time.

Krenek and Kurt Wiell were advocates of the New Objectivity.

literal “music for use”. Hendemith was disturbed by the widening gulf between modern composers and an incresingly passive public much like Krenek and Weill. In response he began to write music that was created for young or amateur performers that was high in quality, modern in style and challenging yet rewarding to perform.
Sergey Prokofiev
Made initial reputation as a radical modernist. Began composing for the Soviet Regime. After WWII turned to absolute music in classical genres which were largely tonal, with the unexpected harmonic juxtapositions and the alternation of acerbic dryness, lyricism, and moteric rhythms that had been fetures of his personal style since the 1910s. He was later in 1948 condemned his works by the autorities as a formalist. Notable works: Peter and the Wolf (symphonic fairy tale), Romeo and Juliet (ballet) and his Piano Sonatas.
Dmitri Shostakovich
In 1920s he was alligned with modernists. His First Symphony in 1926 was his composed at nineteen and gained him fame in the West. All of his works were created in a politicized context and the search for double meanings has been widespread in the West and in Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. He was denounced along with Prokofiev in 1948jand he had to write patriotic film scores and choral paeans to the regime to gain rehabilitation.
C arlos Chavez
First nationalist composer in Mexico. Served as conductor of Mexico’s first professional orchestra and was the director of the national conservatory. Wrote Simfonia india using Indian melodies, in a modernist, primitivist idiom also apparent  in his Piano Concerto.
Edgard Varese

French born, moved to New York in 1915 at age 32. Wrote Ameriques to celebrated his now adapted country. in the 1920s came a series of works that laid down a new agenda as a modernist. In these works he amied to liberate compostion from conventional melody, harmony, meter, regular pulse, recurrent bet, and traditonal orchestraton. Offrandes, Hyperprism, Octandre Inegrales, Ionisation and Ecuatorial.

To him sounds as such were the essential structural components of music., which he defined as organized sound, and he considered all sounds acceptable as raw material. He imagined music as spatial to an aural ballet in which what he called sound masses moved through musical space, changing and interacting.

After WWII he began to use new resources of electronic sound generation and the tape recorder to make possible the realization of the sounds he beard in his mind, thus Deserts for winds, percussion and tape and in the tape piece Poeme electronique.

Spacial Music
Associated with composers like Varese, Boulez and Stockhaussen. Music akin to an aural ballet in which sound masses move through musical space, changing and interacting.
sound masses
A body of sounds characterized by a particular timbre, register, rhythm, and melodic gesture, which may be stable or may gradually be trasformed. Term adopted by Varese.
Henry Cowell
Native Californian began composing as a teenager with little traing in European music. Used ton clusters so much in his music that he was thought to be the inventor. Bartok once wrote him asking permission to use his technique. Wrote book New Musical Resources. Promoted music by his contemporaries as well as his own through concerts and through the periodical new Music in which he published scores by Ives and other modernist and ultramodernist composers.
Ruth Crawford Seeger
Her music was published by Cowell. The first woman to win a Guggenheim Fellowship in music. Was most active as a composer in Chicago between 1924 and 1929 and in NY between 1929 and 1933. She studied composition in NY with who would become her husband. She refined theories dissonant counterpoint, rhythmic freedom between contrapuntal voices, and other modern techniques that her teacher/husband had developed. Her reputation as a composer chiefly rests on her New York compositions written between 1930 and 1933, which are concerned with dissonant counterpoint and American serial techniques. She was one of the first composers to extend serialism to musical elements other than pitch, and to develop formal plans based on serial operations
Aaron Copland

Moved from stringent dissonance in the 20s to a streamlined style in the 30s and 40s that combined modernism with national American idioms. His Homosexuality, and his leftist politics made him something of an outsider, het he became the most important and central American composer of his generation through his own compositions and his work for the cause of American music.

Was influenced by jazz and popular music using stong dissonance. He developed a new style reducing his modernist technique to its essence of counterpoint, dissonance and juxtaposition, then combining it with simple textures and diatonc melodies and harmonies. his later works encompassed a variety of styles. He even adopted some features of twelve tone technique; example, Connotatons.

Virgil Thomson
Adopted Saties branch of avant-gardism andsought to write music thas was simple, direct, playvful, and focused on the present. Most of his music was more overtly Americanist. Like Copland he wrote for film scores, using American fold elements from cowboy songs to spiritulals. He claimed that Copland had borrowed the Americanist style from him.
Olivier Messiaen

Most important French composer born in the 20th Century. Studied organ and composition at the Paris Conservatoire. Taught harmony at Conservatoire in 41. Afer war, he taught many important composers of the younger generation, including his fellow Frenchman Pierre Boulez, Stockhausen, Luigi Nono and Ton de Leeuw. Composed many pieces on religiious subjects such as the Qutuor pour la fin du temps (Quartet for the End of time for violin, clarinet, cello and piano, written at a Germny military prison camp in 41 for performance by the composer and three fellow prisoners. Wrote down birdsongs i musical notation and used them in several compositions, where they convey a sense of contemplating the gives of nature and the devine.

Discovered “modes of limited trasposition” which were collections of notes, lie the whoe tone and octatonic scales, that do not change when tranposed by certain intervals; for example, an octatonic scale transposed a minor third, tritone or major sixth will yield the same set of notes. Such scales lake the differentiatio of diatonic scales and so do not create a strong desire for resolution, making them well suited for music designed to suggest contemplation and a negation of desire.

He treats rhythm as a matter of duration not meter.

In addition, his Mode de valeurs et d’intensites (Mode of Durations and Intensities Messiaen created a mode comprising thrty-six pitches, each assigne a specific duration, dynamic leve, and articulation to be used everytime that pitch occured. This inspired Boulez to write the first European work of total serialism.


Modes of limited Transposition
Discovered by Messiaen and grouped inot catagories, these were collections of notes, like the whole tone and octatonic scales, that do not change when transposed by certain intervals; for example, an octtonic scale transposed a minor third, tritone or major sixth will yield the same set of notes. Such scales lack the differentiation of diatonic scales and so do not create a strong desire for resolution, making them well suited for music designed to suggest contemplation and a negation of desire.
Harmonic stasis
Messiane’s harmony avoids moving forward to a resolution. Rather, chord series are simply repeated to create a sense of stasis or meditation.
Duration, not meter
Messiaen treats rhythm as a matter of duration, not meter. Meter, as a series of beats organized in measures, is a human or worldy thing, associated with dance and heartbeats. When we respond to music metrically, we are in our bodies, but when we attend instead to durations we are in the realm of time, ruled by the divine. His repeated patterns of durations resembel the talea or repeating rhythmnic patterns of medieval isorhythm.
Benjamin Britten

(191301976) Was concerned primarily with communication. After studying privately and at the Royal College of Music, he spent several years in the late 1930s writing music for films. This taught him to communicate throught the simplest means. He tempered modernism with simplicity to achieve a clear and widely appealing idiom. Was concerned with humanitarian concerns and ideals of public service, manifest in his interes in writing music for children and amateurs.

Wrote Peter Grimes which established his reputation and became the first English opera since Percell to enter the international repertory.

Peter Grimes
Established Britten’s reputation and became the first English opera since Percell to enter the international repertory. Centers on a fisherman who is disliked by the other residents of his village, pursued by mobs, and ultimately driven to suicide. The them of the individual persecuted by the crowd can be rad as an allegory for the condigtion of homosexuals in a hostile society.Grimes is not asympathetic character; we are meant to see ourselves, not in him but in the ugly crowd that unthinkingly persecutes outsiders on the basis of suspicions and misinformation, forcing a poignant catharus in the final tragedy.
Tonal Traditionalism

Many twentieth-century composers developed individual styles without departing radically from the past. Tonality or neotonality often, though not necessarily, characterizes their music. Seeking to communicate with as varied a public as possible, these composers offered listeners a thread that can be followed through identifiable themes, readibly audible forms, and programmatic subjects or titles. They tried to inspire performers to champion their music, creating works that musicians are eager to play more than once.

Among these composers is Samuel Barber.

Samuel Barber
One of the most successful American tonal traditionalist. His tonal romaniticism is fully expressed in his best-known work, Adagio for Strings and in his Violin Concerto and Piano Concerto. He oftenincorporated modernist resources into his tonal music.
About Serialism
After World War II young composers in Germay and elsewhere embraced music that the Nazi regime had condemned, especially that of Schoenberg and Webern. By the early 1950s many composers had adopted twelve-ton methods, adapting them to their own purposes. Stravinsky and Ginastera had already taken up serialism by now, but it had its most profound impact onthe generation of composers who were just beginning their careers at the end of the war. Their interest was partly musical, reflecting enthusiasm for new possibilities, and partly political, expressing a rejection of the Nazi and communist ideoligies that had opposed such dissonant and esoteric music.
Began as a government sponsored even after WW II. Summer courses for new music beginning in 1946 (with the secret assistance of the United States’ occupying forces). At a memorial concert of his works at Darmstadt in 1953, Webern was hailed as the father of a new movement. The ideas fostered at Darmstadt and other centers for new music inspired experiments by composers in many countries. Pierre Boulez of Paris and Karlheinz Stockhausen of Cologne, both pupils of Messiaen, became the two principal composers of the Darmstadt group.
total serialism
Beginning in the late 40s, composers applied the principle of Schoenbergs tone rows to musical parameters other than pitch. If the twelve notes of the chromatic scale could be serialized, o could durations, intensities, timbres, and other elements, although typically only some nonpitch elements are treated serially, and the rest are used to highlight the serial structure.
Milton Babbitt
American serial composer. Combined series of pitches and of durations and manipulated them by the usual operations of inversion and retrograde in his Three Compositions for Piano, the first piece to allpy serial principles to duration. His music quickly grew more complex, as he went beyond the practices of Schoenberg and his circle to realize the new potentials of the twelve-tone system.
Pierre Boulez

A modernist, reationist. He has been described as being frustrated over trying not only to break away from the influences of the masters but of being frustrated with anything that referred to the past.

Was taught by Messiean. Was influenced by Messiean’s Mode de valeurs et d’intensities and the third Quatre etudes de rythme (Four Rhythmic Studies). In these pieces Messiaen created a “mode” comprising thirty-six pitches, each assigned a specific duration, dynamic level and articuation to be used every time that pitch occured. Althought eh pitches were arranged in three divisions, each including all twelve chromatic notes, the piece itself was not serially organized.

This inspired Boulez to write the first European work of total serialism, Structures for two pianos, in which pitches and durations are both serial and dynamics and articulation are used to distinguish row from one another.

Boulez was also involved with electronic music.

Luciano Berio
Italian composer (1925-2003). Wrote serial works but later wrote a more atonal language with figurations and textures that resemble those of his earlier serial music. Most known for his work called Sequenza.
Elliot Carter
American composer. Wrote for virtuoso perfomrers, using a coplex, nonserial style characterized by innovations in rhythm and form. Beginning with his Cello Sonata (1948) he developed what he called metric modulation.
Metric Modulation
Technique attributed to Elliot Carter. He preferred to call it Tempral Modulation. A transition is made from one tempo and meter to another through an intermediary stage that shares aspects of both, , resulting in a precise proportional change in the value of a durational unit.
John Cage

Sought to bring into music sounds, approaches and ideas that previously had been excluded. He repeatedly challenged the core concepts of music itself and therby played a leading role in the postwar avant-garde. His music in the late 30s and 40s focused on new sounds, building on the work of his teacher Henry Cowell. He wrote numerous works for percussion ensemble using both traditional instruments and untradional ones, such as tin cans of various size and pitch in Third Construction in Metal and an electric buzzer and electronlically amplified noises in Imaginary Landscape No. 3 (1942). His experimentation with timbre lead to his inventionof the prepared piano.

Created some controversy even today with his challenge that music is found everywhere and even in silence.

Prepared Piano
Invention by John Cage in which various objects such as pennies, botls, screws or pieces of wood, rubber, plastic, weather stripping, or slit bamboo are inserted between the strings, resultin in delicate, complex percussive sounds when the piano is played form the keyboard. Sounds resemble drimes, woodblocks, gongs, andother standard or unusual instruments. His Sonatas and Interludes (1946-48) is his best known work for this instrument, consisting of twenty-six sonatas – movements in two repeated parts. The pianoist prepares the piano in advance, following detailed instructions concerning what objects to place between the strings and where to put them, and each movement explores a different set of timbres and furgations.
Harry Partch
Combined the exploration of new instrumental sounds with a new approach to pitch. (1901-74). Undertook an individualistic, single-minded search for new sonic media. He repudiated equal temperament and Western harmony and counterpoint to seek a wholly new system inspired partly by Chinese, Native American, Jewish, Christian, African, and rural American music. His writings speak of a monophonic musical ideal, harking back to the acient Greeks. Devised a new scale with forty-three notes to the octave based on just intonation, in which notes relate to each other through pure intervals from the harmonic series. Built new instruments that could play i this scale, including modified guitars, marimbas, tuned cloud-chanber bowls(large glass containers used in early particle physics), a large string instrument like the acient Greek Kithara, and the gourd tree.
George Crumb

  (1929) Created new sound out of ordinary instruments and objects. Wrote Ancient Voices of Children, a cycle of four songs on poems by Federico Garcia Lorca with two instrumental interludes, unusual sound sources include toy piano, musical saw, harmonica, mandolin, Tibetan prayer stones, Japaniese timple bells, and electric piano. Created special effects also from conventional instruments such as players must bend pitch of the piano by applying a chisel to the strings, thread paper in the harp strings, and tune the mandolin a quarter tone flat.

Used many other extended techniques. His music always has a musical purpose such as to help express his reations to the Vietnam conflict, the social unrest oint he United States and the horrors of wars.

Asian influences

Several Western composers became facinated with Asian instruments, sounds and textures such as Tippett, Cage and Partch, Canadian-American composer Colin McPhee, Henry Cowell (after WWII) and Lou Harison who combined intersts in just intonation and inventing new instruments, inspired by Partch, wrote several works that combine Western and Asian instruments.

Takemitsu who was Asian was interested in linking Asian ans Western traditions.

Toru Takemitsu
Wrote music for Western ensembles and inspired by European influences. Western music, both classical and popular, became well known in Asia over the course of the twentieth century, and by midcentury many Asians were writing music in the European clasical tradition. In the 60s he began to write music of his native Japan and blended the two traditions. He often combined Western and Japanese instruments and techniques in his many film scores.
Musique Concrete
Pierre Schaeffer who pioneered using recorded sounds, munipulating the chosen sounds through mechanical and electronic means, and assembling them i to collages. Worked at RDF (Radiodiffusion Fancaise or French radio) in Paris. He called it musique concrete because he worked concretely with sound itself rather than with music notation.  He and his collabortor Pierre Henry created the first major work, Symphonie pour un homme seul (Symphony for One Man) premiered in a 1950 radio broadcast. Tape recorders, which became widely available around that year, made it possible to record, amplify, and transform sounds, then superimpose, juxtapose, fragment, and arrange them as desired toproduce pieces of music.
Pierre Schaeffer
Worked in at RDF with his collaborator Pierre Henry.  Was inventor of musique concrete because the composer worked concretely with sound itself rather than with music notation.
First electronic instrument invented around 1920 by Lev Termen, which changed pitch according to the distance between the instrument’s antenna and the performers hand.
Ondes Martenot
invented in 1928 by Maurice Mrtenot. Was controlled by a wire, ribbon or keyboard. Like the Theremin, produced one not at a time, and were capable of glissandos along the entire pitch continuum. Both produced haunting, almost voice-like sound. Featured in some orchestral works, they became common in film scores like Hitchcock’s Spellbound, where they lent an eerie or futuristic effect, but they were not used in electronic music itself.
Electronic music studios
Between 1951 and 1953 studios to create electronic music were founded at Columbia University in New Yourk and at radio stations in Cologne (Germany), Milan (Italy), and Tokyo (Japan) followed by many others across Europe and the Americals. At most studio s, composers focused on producing sounds electronically and manipulating them through electronic devices and on tape. A whole noew realm of possible sounds became available, including sounds not producible by any natural means.
Gesang der Junglinge
Stockhausen and others often used recorded sounds alongside electronci ones as in this piece by Stockhausen. which incorporates a boy’s voice. This was the first major electronic piece to use multiple tracks, played in concert through several louspeakers placed in various positions relative to the audience, which created a sens of the music coming from numerous directions and moving through space.
Poeme electronique
Commissioned by the Philips Radio Corporation for the Brussels Exposition in 1958. An eight minute piece by Varese that was projected by 425 loudspeakers ranging all about the interiour space of the pavilioun designed by Xenakis while he was working for LeCorbusier. Included moving lights and projected images. Fifteen thousand people a day experienced this multimedia piece ober a six month period so that it was probably heard by more people than any other serious work of electronci music.

In mid 60s Robert Moog and Donald Buchla each developed far simpler and more compact sythesizers based on voltage -controlled oscillators. When thee became comercially available in 66, they were adopted by electronic music studios and individual composers around the world.

Morton Subotnick wrote the forst electronic piece using the Buchla synthisizer called Silver Apples of the Moon which was commissioned by a record company, designed to fill two sides of an LP and to be played at home rather than in concert.

The synthesizers were also adopted by popular artists such as the Beales and electronic sythesizers soon became a familiar sound in pop music.

The RCA Mark II Sythesizer
Large sythesizer developed at the joint Colubia-Princeton Electronic Music Center int he late 50s and used by many composers from the United States and abroad including Babbitt. Would be large enough to fill a room. Composers could call on pitches from a music kyboard and with switches and knobs control harmonics, waveforms, resonance, and location of sound source.
Tape and Live performance
One of the most moving early examples is Babbitt’s Philomel for soprano soloist with a tape that includes altered recored framents of the singer as well as electronic sounds. The live voice and the voice on the tape engage in dialogue, accompanied by sythesized sounds, all worked out according to Babbitts usual serial procedures.
Textural music
The exploration of electronc sounds stimulated the invention of new sound effects obtainable from conventional instruments and voices, often imitating electronic music. Composers wrote pieces whose material consists promarily of striking sound combinations that create interesting and novel textures, organized by gradual or sudden processes of change.
Iannis Xenakis
Greek composer who was an engineer and architect as well as a composer. Saw mathematics as fundamental to both music and architecture so he based his music on mathematical concepts. Metastaseis was his claim to fame. The piece is charted out with individual lines for each violinist representing glissandos. he transferred the lines to standard musical notation. This graph the constructed became the idea for the design for the Philips Pavilion where Varese premiered his commissioned piece, Poeme Electronique.
Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima

One of the best-known pieces based on textures and process by Krysztof Penderecki for fifty-two string instruments. The score gives few definite pulses or note values, and instead measures time by seconds. Again each instrument has a unique part to play. Each section focuses on a particular kind of sound, using newly invented notation that shows the effect graphically but not imprecisely.
In the first section the players may choose any of four patterns, they may move at different speeds (each as fast as possible), and the exact sounds each produces are indeterminate, but the overall effect is essentially the same in each performance, creating a pricklym interesting texture.

The next section is based on sustained tones, quarter-tone clusters and glissandos between them.

Gyorgy Ligeti
Hungarian composer who achieved world renown through Staney Kubriks science fiction film 2001: A Space Odyssey, which uses excerpts from three of his works:
Atmospheres, Requiem and Lux aeterna. This music is in constant motion, yet static both harmonically and melodically. Most known for his textural music but was involved in ensemble and electronic music as well.
Modernist vs Avant Garde

Many of the composers intended their music or at least some of it, to find a place in the permanent classical repertoire alongside the masterpieces of the past, and they designed their works to finctuion in the same way as the established classics, drawing on the art music tradition, proclaiming a distictive musical personalitiy and rewarding rehearsings. Even as they introduced radical new methods as Babbitt, Carter and Crumb did in their  string quartets, these composers continued the goals of modernism. Other works were experimental, intended to try out new methods for thei own sake.

Avant-Garde composers have quite different motivations such as satie and futurism. They challenge accepted aesthetics, even the very concept of permanent classical,and invite listeners to focus on what is happening in the present. The distiction does not lie in what techniques are used, but inthe music’s purpose.

John Cage
Leading composer and philosopher of the postwar avant-garde. From his earlier experimetation with percussion mosuc and the prepared piano, he turned in the 50s and 60s to ever more radical reconceptions of music. He strongly opposed the museum-like preservation of music from the past and argued for music that focused the listener’s attention on the pressent moment. His main strategy for accompolishing this were chance, indeterminacy and the blurring of boundaries between music , art and life.
Chance music

Conceived by Cage. By leaving some of the decisions normally made by a composer to chance, Cage created pieces in which the sound did not convey his intentions, but simply were. His approach varied from piece to piece but typically involved choosing a gamut of enements to be included, planning how they were to be selected, and then using chance operations to do the selection. Music of Changes took its name from the acient Chinese book of prophecy I-Ching (Book of Changes), which offers a method of divination by tossing coins six times to determin the answer from a list of sixty four possibilities. For Music of Changes, Cage devised charts of possible sounds (half wre silences), dynamics, and tempose and used the method from the I-Ching to select whivch were to be used, filling in a formal structure based on units of time.

In chance music, some elements are determined by chance, in indeterminancy music, some elements are left unspecified by the composer.

Pioneeered by Cage. The composer leaves certain aspects of the music unspecified. He drew the idea in part from the work of his friend Morton feldma, who in pieces such as Prjection 1 for cello used graphic notation to indicate register, timbre, and timig in general terms rather than specifying precise notes and durations. Cages Concert for piano and orchestra,includes sixty-three pages containing various kinds of graphic notation, intended to be realized by the player according to instructions n the score; the exact sounds produced vary considerably from one performance to another. 4’33” is a piece of indeterminancy.
Blurring the boundaries
In late 1950, Cage moved toward completly openness in every aspect of composition and performance. Variations IV, for instance, uses both indeterminancy and chance (transparent plastic sheets with lines, dots and other symbols are superimposed randomly and then read as graphic notation to creat a piece “for any number of players, any sounds or combinations of sounds produced by any means, withor without other activities.” The other activites might include speech, theater, dance, and activities of daily life. Including these other activities in musical works blurred the boundaries between music , other arts and the rest of life.
Indeterminacy composers
Cage, Feldman, Brown (Available forms I ; II, Young (with his performance art music), Stockhausen, Lutoslawski, Penderecki
Fluxus Group
Loose group lead by Young of avant-garde artists in Europe and the United States who cooperated to produce concerts and publications of their pieces. For example, Composition 1960 No. 2 by Young instructs the perform to Build a fire in front of the audience. Yoko Ono’s collection of pieces Grapefruit, conceptual aimed as much at the performer as at any observers. In it is her piece Earth Piece where the performer is directed to listen to the sound of the earth turning.
Quotation and Collage

The reworking of borrowed material by earlier composers from Bach and Handel to moernist lide Schoenberg, Ives, and Stravinsky served as inspiration, as did quotations in modern poetry and collage in modern art. But postwar compsers turned borrowing to new purposes, using evocations of older music to carry meanings taht were not availabe by other means. Composers who used this style were: Peter Maxwell Davies (English) drew on chant and English Renaissance music for man works, emphasizing the gulf between modern times and the distant past by distorting the source material or transforming it through modern procedures.

George Roehberg and George Crumb (American composers). Rochberg who had written mostly serial music, found it inadequate to express his feelings on the death of his son in 1964, and turned the next year to works based on borrowed material. Contra mortem et tempus (Against Death and Time) quotes passages from Boulez, Berio, Varese, and Ives and Music for Magic Theater incorporates music from Mozart, Beethoven, Mahler, Webern, Verese, Stockhausen.

George Crumb also often reflects on music of the past,; for example his Back Angels quotes the Chant Dies irae and Schuberts Death and the maiden Quartet.

Stockhausen (German) used borrowed material in several works. Gesang der Jungling, Telemusik, Hymnen and opus 1970. In Hymnen, which was with voices, instruments and electronic sound incorporates words and melodies of many different national anthems. The intention was “not to interpret, but to hear familiar, old, preformed musical material with new ears, to penetrate and transform it with a musical consciousness of today.”

Berio (Italian) incorporated most of the scherzo movement of Mahler’s Second Symphony; in his Sinfonia and superimposed on it an amplified verbal comentary by an eight-voice ensemble and a musical commentary by a large orchestra. Overlaid on the Mahler are quotations from over one hundred other works, including Strause, Ravel, Berg and Debussy.

American Banmasters Association founded in 1930. promoted bands and band music including professional traing for conductors and standardization of ensembles.
Coolege Band Directors National Association founded 1942. promoted bands and band music, including professional training for conductors and standardization of music ensembles. They promoted the concept of the concert band (symphonic band) as a vehicle for serious concert music.
Edwin Franko Goldman
The most famous bandmaster after Sousa. He and his son, Richard Goldman continued the tradition of outdoor band concerts through the nationally broadcast Godman Band summer series from New York’s Central Park.
wind ensemble
The wind ensemble was forst established by Frederic Fennell with the Eastman School of Music Eastman Wind Ensemble. It differs from the concert band. Each instrumental part became essential and all or most were played by soloists, as in a large chamber ensemble.
Music for Progue 1968

Wind Ensemble piece by Karel Husa that was written as a response to the occupation of Czechoslovakia and overthrow of its liberatlizating government by the Soviet Union in August 1968. It combines quoted material with ovious meanings-the same Czech hymn Smetana had used in his Tabor with abstact procedures and uses a variety of modern resources, including twelve-tone methods, indeterminancy, a focus on texture and an all percussion movement.

Received over 7 thousand performances.

Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique(IRCAM)
Institute for Acoustic and Musical Research and Coordination) founded by Pierre Boulez in Paris. One of the premier centers for computer music in Europe. In Inharmonique and other works written during his time as director of IRCAM computer music department, Jean Caude Risset uses the computer to mediate between live voices and sythesized or electronically processed sound. He has continued to design new sounds, exploring the interaction of sound waves, harmonics, timbre, and other baic elements of sound.
Materials are reduced to a minimum and prcedures simplified so that what is going on in the music is immediately apparent. Began as an avant-garde asethetic focused on the musical processes themselves but over time becam a widely used and popular technique, capable of a wide range of expressive content. These composers’ works absorbed influences form rock, African music, Asian music, tonality and finally Romanticism to creat what hs been called the leading musical style of the late twentieth century.
Early Minimalism in music
A paralell movement was nurtured among musicians in New York City and in the California conterculture. One of the pioneers of musical minimalsim was La Monte Young, whose The Tortoise: His Dreams and Journeys (1964) was an improvisation; in which instrumentalists and singers come in and out oon various harmonics over a fundamental played oas a drone bya a sythesizer. Terry Riley who once performed in Youngs ensemble experimented with tape loops, short segments of magnetic tape spliced into loops that wne fed through a tape recorder play the same recorded sounds again and again. His most famous work, In C uses a similar procedure with live instruments.
Minimalist composers

One of the pioneers of musical minimalsim was La Monte Young, whose The Tortoise: His Dreams and Journeys (1964) was an improvisation in which instrumentalists and singers come in and out oon various harmonics over a fundamental played oas a drone bya a sythesizer. Terry Riley who once performed in Youngs ensemble experimented with tape loops, short segments of magnetic tape spliced into loops that wne fed through a tape recorder play the same recorded sounds again and again. His most famous work, In C uses a similar procedure with live instruments.

While Young remained an avant-garde experimentalist and Riley moved toward rock music, Three other American composers brought minimalist procedures into art music intended for a broad audience.

Steve Reich worked with phasing in the recording studio with taped loops. Wrote Piano Phase (1967). Later moved away from total minimalism to using the technique for large-scale works.

Philip Glass published twenty works by the time he completed degrees at the university of Chicago and Julliard and his studies with Nadia Boulanger but withdrew all of them after working with the Indian sitarist Ravi Shankar in Paris. Glass’s works since the mid 60s have been deeply influenced by the rhythmic organization of Indian music. They emphasized melodiousness, consonance and the simple harmonic progressions and abundant amplification of rock music and have won Glass a large diverse following from rock enthusiast to classical listeners. Wrote the minimalist opera Einstein on the Beach.

John Adams has traced a path from minimalism to a personal style that bends inimalist techniques with a variety of other approaches.

Arvo Part
Estonian Composer. Following early neoclassical and serial works, and others that contrasted modernist with Baroque styles, he turned to a study of Gregorian chant and early polyphony. In the 1970s, he devised a method he called tintinnabuli, after the bell-like sonorities it produced. Its essence lies in counterpoint between a pitch-centered, mostly stepwise diatonic melody and one or more other voices that sound only notes of the tonic triad, with the placement of each note determined by a preset system.
Compared to orchitecture of Philip Honson, Robert Venturi, Cesar Pelli and others, who left behind the bare glass facades of mid-twentieth century modernism by incorporating elements of earlier styles into essentially modern designs a mixture that came to be called post-modernism. A central aspect is a turning away from the belief, crucial to modernist thought, that history progresses irreversibly in one direction. In music, this idea means abandoning the notion that musical idioms develop continuously, as if according to a plan or some inner necessity. To the postmodernist, history gives the artist more freedom than that the styles of all epochs and cultures are equally available as musical material to be employed as the composer sees fit.
Alfred Schnittke
(1934-98) worked in the Soviet Union, where he was known chiefly for his film music, before moving to Germany in 1990. The Soviet government began to relax its control over culture in the 1960s under Nikita Khrushchev, exposing Schnittke and other young composers to Western trends such as serial, chance, and electronic music. After writing several works based on serialism, indeterminacy, and new instrumental sounds, he turned to a more post-modern style called polystylism.

A post-modern technique combinating new and older styles created through quotation or stylistic allusion. Schnittke turned to this style after writing serveral works based on serialism, indeterminacy, and new instrumental sounds. His Symphony No 1 (1969-72) incorporates passages from works by Haydn, Bethoven, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, Johann Strauss, and even himself.

John Corigliano also used this style in his opera The Ghosts of Versailles centered around ghosts in the French royal palace, including Queen Marie Antoinette and others slain during the Revolution, and a play staged for their entertainment; the ghosts are rendered with modern serial music and timbral effects, while the play is set in a style based on Mozart operas.

Peter Schickele (PDQ Bach)
The witiest and most popular composer to use quotation and stylistic allusion. Performed under name PDQ Bach as a spoof on old music, its performing practice, and musicologists. Wrote the Howdy Symphony, a response to Haydns Farewell Symphony.
A work that openly imitates the previous work of another artist or composer usually with satirical intent. One such composer would be Peter Schickele. Other composers did however use Quotation and Polystylism which is sometimes considered the same as Patiche.
In their search for expressive tools that connect directly with listeners, some composers adopted the familiar tonal idiom of nineteenth-century Romanticism or incorporated its sounds and gestures. Such composers include Penderecki in his later works such as Paradise Lost; George Rochberg who used romantic and early modernist styles  beginning in the 70s; and David Del Tredici who turned from serial methods after the 60s to write excerpts from Lewis Carroll’s stories for children, feeling that their whimsy called for a direct comprehensible presentation.

Post modern composers using various styles invoked extramusical meanings and imagry, hoping that listeners would accept unusual sounds if their meanings were clear. Spirituality was a frequent theme, continuing music’s long association with religion and the transcendent.

Examples of such composers were: Sofia Gubaidulina (Russian). Almost all of her works have a spiritual dimension, often suggested in the title. Such as the five momements of her sonata for violin and viola called Rejoice!.

John Tavener (English) also has centered on spiritual concerns. After writing works influenced by Stravinsky’s serialism and block construction, he joined the Orthodox Church in 77 and began to incorporate elements from its liturgical music.

Murray Schafer, the leading Canadian composer of the era travered a wide variety of styles from neoclassical to avant-garte, yet most of his pieces are based on extramusical inspirations. His orchestral works Dream Rainbow Dream Thunder reflects ideas from the culture of the Inuits, natives of Canada. His most striking is his environmental music. This is music that is to break out of the concert hall. In his work, Music for Wilderness Lake, it is to be performed at sunrise and sunset at a small lake away from human selltements, with twelve trombonists positioned around its shores playing meditative melodies to one another across the water, cued by a conductor in a raft, and joined by animal sounds.

Joan Tower bases her works on images. Siver laders for orchestra features rising lines, either stepwise or leaping by fourths, moving at different speeds amid a variety of textures.