organized sound
pervasively dissonant (atonal)
uses forms that were popularized in the classical and Baroque eras, while still retaining aspects of Romanticism. Use either or both traditional form or harmony.
(total artwork), uses theatre, dance, and music, literature, and art…etc (WAGNER)
reoccuring musical theme associated with a certain person, place, or idea. It should be clearly identified so that it can retain it’s identity even in modifications of instrumentation, rhythm, etc. (WAGNER)

An associated melodic phrase or figure that accompanies the reappearance of an idea, person, or situation

music drama
known for his music dramas. Normally categorized into three chronological periods (WAGNER)
location of Richard Wagner’s new Opera house
Richard Strauss
conductor, puts a lot of himself into his work. Known for Operas and Tone Poems (Program Music) Took Wagner and Liszt ideas and pushed to extremes but did not push off edge of tonality
absolute music
music that is not about anything but itself. Describes music as an art form separated from formalisms or other considerations. Non-representational
program music
trys to portray or express something non musical.attempts to musically render an extra-musical narrative. The narrative itself might be offered to the audience in the form of program notes, inviting imaginative correlations with the music.
symphonic poem/tone poem
a particular genre work with literary background and in only 1 movement (ex. salome based on a play by Oscar Wilde. Drama is disturbing and music reflects this)
Also sprach Zarathustra
tone poem inspired by Nietzche; not minor or major until after the first few chords. Key of C = nautre, key of B – Friedrich Nietzsche – German philosopher/classical philogist who wrote many texts on religion, morality, philosophy and science…uses organ to represent sun and the 2 separate keys of C and B played at once represent bitonality
tone poem. Atonal, denies conventions of beauty for truth and the internal psyche.

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John the Baptist, Herod throws him in jail. Doesn’t want to kill because of possible uproar. Salome dances and gets whatever she wants, Herod’s wife tells salome to ask for the head of John the Baptist.

One of Strauss’s 3 main/most successful operas
used to free their art form from the traditional tonality
placed sole importance on internal psyche and emotion…very abstract; based on Froid. Implies emotional “angst”, Schoenberg, Webern.
The Mighty Five
Mussorgsky (exhibition), Rimsky, Borodin, Balakirov, and Cui. All Russian composers who had the aim of producing music rather than one that imitated older European Music. They were a branch of the romantic nationalist movement in Russia.

They were all self-taught amateurs. Represented the first concentrated attempt to develop a Russian type of music.

the Mighty Five used modes/minor tonality because it was influenced by Russian Folk Music
Alexander Scriabin
a Russian composer and pianist who initially developed a lyrical and idiosyncratic tonal system inspired by the music of Frederic Chopin. Quite independent of the innovations of Arnold Schoenberg, Scriabin developed, as a sort of mysticism, an increasingly atonal musical system that presaged twelve-tone composition and other serial music. He may be considered to be the main Russian Symbolist composer.
quartal harmony
used by Scriabin. Stacked fourths
“Vers la flamme”
Toward the Flame: Uses quartal harmony. Composed by Scriabin. The melody is quite simple, consisting of mainly descending half steps. Unusual harmonies and difficult tremolos make an intense, fiery luminance.
Prometheus: Poem of Fire
Uses “clavier a lumiere” (A color organ). Scriabin wanted it to take place in the Himalayas (Megalomania – a phsychopathological condition characterized by delusional fantasies of wealth, power, and ominipitance) The world was supposed to change as we know it once the song ended. Uses A D# G C# F# and B which became known as the “mystic chord”
Scriabin pretended to be a synaesthete. is a neurologically-based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway
color organ
Scriabin used it in his pieces. Notated on a staff of it’s own in treble clef at the top of the score and consists of two parts: one changes with the harmony, and always goes to the root note of harmony and produces the color Scriabin associated with each key (as in synesthesia)
supposed to be performed in the Himalayas. Composed by Scriabin
Paris Conservatory
Where Scriabin studied
Ecole Neidermeyer
1853 primarily on study of old masters (renaissance and baroque) a school for the study and practice of church music, where several eminent French musicians studied including Gabriel Faure and Andre Messager
schola cantorum
Goal Gregorian tadition on plainsong to raise level of French Church. A school for choir, primarily in monasteries.
Claude Monet
Revolutionary, changed it from being about the thing that was being painted to using the thing being painted to portray something else. fin de siecle
whole tone scale
used a lot by Monet and Debussy
influenced Debussy and Ravel. percussive music
synonomous with the collection of pitches in effect, provided that one note is shown as central…modality = tonality
loosely defined style of French painting of the late nineteenth century associated with works by Claude Monet and other impressionist painters. Certain composers like Debussy are known as impressionist composers because they echo the style of the impressionist painters: a fluidity of rhythm and meter suggestive of the hazy outlines of an Impressionist landscape, melodic arabesques reminiscent of art nouveau illustration, a sensitivity to the play of instrumental and vocal color, and, in general, the use of a refined and evocative musical language that expresses the sensuousness of nature and the external world.
extended tertian chord
n music, extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh. Ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords are extended chords. The thirteenth is the farthest extension diatonically possible as, by that point, all seven tonal degrees are represented within the chord.
non-functional harmony
is harmony whose progression is not guided by function
planing/parallel harmonies
Parallel chords arise when the same intervallic relationship is maintained in adjacent chords moving in parallel motion. This means that each note within the chord rises or falls by the same interval.
Debussy associated himself with the symbolist art movement and not the impressionists
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun: 1894
Poetry by Steven Mallarme. Uses crotales (little brass discs, percussion) and antique cymbols. Its a tone poem. Not many cadences, the first one is 5 pages in. lots of tritones, harp punctuates the ends and beginnings of phrases. No conventional form may be ternanry. Uses mutes on the strings, like muted pastels, no hard edges, clear rhythms. Melody is passed from one instrument to another. Lots of shifting in color because of the changing instruments. Elisions are used to connect the ending cadences to the beginning of the next phrase.
Pelleas et Melisande
Opera written by Debussy based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck. Manifestation of his conflicting relationship with Wagner. so Anti-Wagnerian in a way because of it’s simplicity and how understated it it…not Wagner, but uses Wagnerian devises like leitmotifs
piano without hammers
Debussy used this to create the texture he wanted in the preludes books
The Engulfed Cathedral: Cathedrale engloutie
considered water music (feeling of being on a wave) ostinato is watery. The constant pedal point in the lower register mimics the bubble watery feeling, and also creates a sense of the organ…which relates to the church.
gregorian chant
sounded like chant music (church)
church like, chant organum, drone (pedal from organ)
Maurice Ravel
neo-classical composer
le tombeau de couperin
each movement was dedicated to a friend of Ravel’s who died in WWI. structure imitates a Baroque dance suite, and is not a tribute to Couperin himself, but to pay homage to the French keyboard suite.
Mother Goose Suite
Composed by Ravel. piano duet originally for 2 hands of children. 5 movements. It makes use of a hocket inspired by gamalin music.
Empress of the Pagodas
based on a tale called “the Green Serpent” by Madame d’Aulnoy. Uses pentatonic scales
constant ostinato, builds by way of orchestration, everytime the melody is repeated another instrument is added. Chormatic and whole tone scale is symmetrical and octatonic scale is used. By Ravel
tissue without music
How ravel described the instrumentation of Bolero
Jeux d’eau
dedicated to Faure, whom Ravel was studying with at the time. Inspired by Liszt. this is known as water music. the play of water mentioned in the title is captured by an effervescence of arpeggios and melodic arabesques. The spirit of this piece is suggested by a line added to the score from the poet Henri de Regnier: “River God, laughing from the water which tickles him.” The work avails itself of the repertory of harmonies characteristic of both Debussy and Liszt. It begins and ends in E major, but all tonic triads are decorated by the major seventh D#. The triads of the opening give way to a whole-tone passage in measures 4-6 and the subsidiary theme is pentatonic. A hand against C major triads in the right. This bitriadic passage may well have been in Stravinsky’s ear when he wrote the very similar opening to the second tableau of Petrushka.
Erik Satie
Satie’s music is a state of being instead of a state of beginning. Uses repedition as humor (influenced by Mozart and others)
art movement that embraced obscurity. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. In addition to being anti-war, dada was also anti-bourgeois and anarchist in nature. Dawn of the art of the ready-made
Marcel Duchamp
main artist for Dada.A playful man, Duchamp challenged conventional thought about artistic processes and art marketing, not so much by writing, but through subversive actions such as dubbing a urinal art and naming it Fountain. He produced relatively few artworks, while moving quickly through the avant-garde circles of his time.
augmented chords, quasi minimalism. Repeated 840 times, two page piece.The theme and its accompanying chords are written using strikingly eccentric and impractical enharmonic notation. The piece is undated, but scholars usually assign a date around 1893 on the basis of musical and biographical evidence.
The piece bears an inscription which says that “In order to play the theme 840 times in succession, it would be advisable to prepare oneself beforehand, and in the deepest silence, by serious immobilities” (Pour se jouer 840 fois de suite ce motif, il sera bon de se preparer au prealable, et dans le plus grand silence, par des immobilites serieuses). From the 1960s onward, this text has mostly been interpreted as an instruction that the page of music should be played 840 times,[1][2] though this may not have been Satie’s intention.
needless repetition
Trois Gymnopedies
musical sculpture: all three movements reflect the same thing musically so its like looking at a statue from three different angles. Uses mild dissonances. Satie
means the theatre is closed…its a dadaist title
Entr’acte Cinematographique
short film shown at ballet’s intermission portraying musicians as actors. written by Satie
scenario by Jean Cocteau, choreographed by serge diaghilev and the costume was designed by picasso. Launched the start of Satie’s success
in the costume and set design. In cubism, objects are broken up, analyzed, then put together again in an abstract form from numerous views instead of just one. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism’s distinct characteristics.
pistol shot
realistic sounds used in the score, added by Cacteau. Same as the typewriter
Musique d’ameublement/furniture music
background music played by live musicians, coined by Satie.
Les Six
Darius Milhaud, Poulenc, Honegger, Germaine Taillfere (only female), Ouric, Durray. Mentored by Satie, didn’t like bombastic Wagnerian music. If categorized by anything, categorized by neo-classical.
Darius Milhaud
bitonal, two keys at the same time, influenced by Brazillian music and jazz (bitonality/poly-tonality: two keys at the same time)
La creation du monde (Creation of the World)
by Milhaud, inspired by jazz and primitivism. Influenced by Brazillian music as well. The story has obvious connections with Stravinsky’s ballet Rite of Spring, which had caused a sensation in Paris a decade earlier. The setting is Africa, which for Milhaud made the use of jazz all the more appropriate. “there can be no doubt that the origin of jazz music is to be sought among the negroe,”…”Primitive African qualities have kept their place deep in the nature of the American Negro and it is here that we find the origin of the tremendous rhythmic force as well as the expressive melodies born of inspiration whcih oppressed races alone can produce.”
African Culture Rhythms
Saudades do Brasil
exemplified the concept of saudade (a feeling of nostalgic longing for someone or something that one was fond of and then lost).
emotive disturbance
outside stimulus that begins the process of composition (ie. dream)
Sergei Diaghilev
achieved international fame when he composed three ballets for Imperesario Sergei, and performed by his ballets. founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise.
Ballet Russe
Russian Ballet founded by Diaghilev. Combined new dance, art, and music, and had ground-breaking artistic collaboration with choreographers, artists, dancers, and composers. regarded as the greatest ballet company of the 20th century.
dancer and choreographer of Polish decent, worked for Diaghilev. Had virtuosity and depth and instensity in his characterizations.He could perform en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time (Albright, 2004) and his ability to perform seemingly gravity-defying leaps was also legendary
dancer and choreographer of Polish decent, worked for Diaghilev. Had virtuosity and depth and instensity in his characterizations.He could perform en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time (Albright, 2004) and his ability to perform seemingly gravity-defying leaps was also legendary
L’Oiseau de feau/Firebird
Based on the idea that the bird is borh a blessing and a curse to it’s captor. First piece of music composed specifically for the Ballet Russe. Known as his “breakthrough piece.” Magical creatures of Kashcehi are represented by a chromatic descending motif, usually in the strings. Influences of Rimsky, Debussy, impressionism. A bit of modernism by using artificial harmonies in glisandos. Based on Russian fairytale.
resembles Wagner’s “gesamtkunstwerk” – puppet that comes to life – ostinatos and pedal points (frequent in 20th century) polymetric (more than 1 meter happening simultaneously) and irregular meters. Used the octatonic scale to evoke scenes of magic and exotic mystery. There is also bi-tonality, used to herald the appearance of the puppet. This is the first work where Stravinsky leaves Romanticism behind and enters into Modernism.
La sacre du printemps?The Rite of Spring
Lithuania: Primitivism; uses African Culture Rhythms. Work for the largest orchestra ever assembled. Pumping out a lot of sound. “Pictures from pagan Russia” There was no such thing as modern dance then, only ballet in a modern direction. About sacrifice of a young girl to satisfy God of spring (very provocative) Dance itself had a lot of stamping, pounding of feet. Not on point at all. Joffrey reconstructs ballet right of spring, looks very modern. Defies expectations. Stravinsky says the image came to him in a dream. Collaborated with Nicholas Roerich, Nijinsky. Has virgin dancing to death. This all created a Riot. Ostinato helps ground work and create tonal anchor. Repeated Bitonal chord in top system 3rd measure, accents are irregular and off the beat. Usually has very clear pulse, but these displaced accents undermine the sense of meter. Role of rhythm becoming more imporant in hierarchy.
“yarila” cycle of poetry owned by Stravinsky. Yarila is a single poem from the cycle about a virgin who is selected to dance herself to death as a sacrifice for the god of spring
stravinsky used asymmetrical rhythms, percussive disoonance, polyrhythms, polytonality, layering of ostinati (persistently repeated ideas) and melodic fragments to create complex webs of interactive lines
Les Noces
ballet performed with vocalist. Contained a pianola, harmonium, and cimbolams:
One act chamber opera ballet based on Russian Folk Tales. Repetition of small and simple melodic phrases, syncopated rhythm with irregular meter, and a type of “ragged unison”
a large, trapezoidal box with metal strings stretched across its topl played by striking two beaters against the strings Found in Eastern European countries such as Hungary.
L’Histoire du soldat/The Soldier’s Tale
theatrical work with music by Stravinsky which leads to the soldier marching off to hell. March Tempo, in four, military. Look at the human condition: Flawed and Fatal, but not as grim
published some of Stravinsky’s work
Symphonies of Wind instruments
stravinsky has issue with “symphony” use it as a literal meaning, symph means to sound together Has some Russian folk melody embedded
3 movements, Sinfonia, Theme and variations and Finale. In Variations – he has ribbons of scales – ritornello Ver Stravinsky to have the ostinatos. Symphony and octet as objective and nonprogrammable
Oedipus Rex
testo in the vernacular, vocal soloists in costume, only in oratorio. Written by Jean Cocteau.
Symphony of Psalms
no violins, but lots of wind instruments. Composed for the glory of God, just as Bach used to dedicate his works. Chant like, with a walking ostinato, low instrumentation associated with sin. Chorus and orchestra, from krutsevichsy. Has changing meters. Alto slow chant like melody. Often uses timeless text. Written for the Boston Symphony
double fugue
copied an element of Bach’s music; two subjects developed at the same time (orchestral and choral). Pits choir against Orchestra.
The Rake’s Progress
last neoclassical piece. based on a suite of paintings. It is a number opera Paintings by Hogarth.