Romantic Era
The ________ ___ increasingly elevated the importance of the individual over society.
infinite or Almighty
Westerners began to believe that each human being could express ___________
Romantics did not support __________
good over evil
Individuals may find strength to discover their paths through a triumph of _____________
The Romantic era demonstrates a curious _____ towards science
____________ change influenced the growing middle class. More leisure time more time to think, create and explore.
___________________, however, did take a toll on society.
The population concentration in cities hampered individual ________
In response to the conditions of the city, Romantics longed to return to the ____________
Wealthier people
________ ________ bought land and built homes in the countryside.
The fascination with ______ also influenced Romantic philosophy and the arts.
true selves
Romantics thought that they could find their ______ _______ in real or imagined nature.
Journeys to nature, in turn, inspired an interest in the _____________
performer or composer
Romantics elevated the importance of the individual ________ __________
Franz Liszt
The Hungarian pianist and composer that pioneered program music and invented the tone poem.
Ludwig van Beethoven
The first Romantic composer and his 1808 Pastoral Symphony the first example of Romantic music.
Bonn, Germany
Beethoven was born in ____ _______
He travels to _____ and studies composition with Joseph Haydn.
By 1801 Beethoven realizes that he is growing ____
middle peiod
During his ____ _____ Beethoven begins to establish Romantic musical trends.
The Pastoral Symphony
___________ by Beethoven written in 1808 with full orchestra in Germany. Programmatic Music. Also known as Symphony No. 6 in F Major, A Recollection of country Life
Most symphonies contain four movements but Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony includes ___ movements
The Storm
This is the 4th movement of Beethoven’s 6th Symphony
Classical and Romantic eras
Beethoven bridged the gap between ____ and _____ ____
orchestral effects
“The Storm” employs striking ____ _____ to depict the onset, duration, and clearing of a storm by only occasionally having the orchestra play at once.
Felix Mendelssohn
German composer and child prodigy that wrote the programmatic music Fingal’s Cave Overture (1830/1832) or “Die Hebriden” or “The Isles of Fingal”
Mendelssohn’s “Fingal’s Cave Overture was inspired by a cave on the island of Staffa in ________________.
Music that preceded an opera or a play. In Romantic music it could stand alone.
Fanny Mendelssohn
Talented sister of Mendelssohn who was discouraged from a musical career because she was a girl.
Bed ich Smetana
Bohemian composer that wrote the Tone Poem Die Moldau about two streams that form the Czech Moldau River. Concidered both Programmatic Music and Nationalistic Music also known as Vitava
Ma Vlast
Set of six nationalistic tone Poems by Smetana that depicts an element of Czech history, geography or legend.
Jean Sibelius
Finnish Nationalist composer born in 1865 that began to study law and then changed to music.
The language of the Finnish elite, Sibelius’ native tongue.
The language of the Finnish peasants and favored by the nationalist movement.
Sibelius’ Nationalist Traits
Captures the spirit of Finnish language, character and legend. References nature and legend imitates the phrases of Finnish epic poetry.
Lemminkainen Suite.
Sibelius composed a four-movement tone poem called _______ _________ which draws its program from the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic and legendary hero.
The Swan of Tuonela
________ composed by Jean Sibelius (1893-1897) a Tone poem with a small orchestra which is Programmatic Music and Nationalistic Music from the Lemminkainen Suite.
The English Horn
The Swan of Tuonela contains a famous solo for _________ ________
The hero Lemminkainen must ______ the sacred swan in Tuonela, the Finnish underworld
The Sorcerer’s Apprentice
a Tone poem/scherzo (fast humorous work) by Paul Dukas with full orchestra from the country of France is programmatic Music.
Dukas takes the “Sorcerer’s Apprentice from Goethe where a sorcerer leaves his apprentice alone in his workshop and chaos ensues.
Camille Saint-Sens
Composer born in France, gives first piano recital at 10 and studies organ at Paris conservatoir at age 13 and becomes the first Frenchman to compose a tone poem.
Dance of Death Image
Inspired Danse Macabre. Traces its origins to medieval and renaissance art.
Danse Macabre
Written by Camille Saint-Saens (1874) was a Tone Poem for full orchestra in France and was porgrammatic Music
Saint-Saens uses ________ an alternate tuning of the violin for the solo violin in Danse Macabre.
Saint-Saens uses the xylophone to represent the bones dancing around.
Hector Berlioz
composer born in France in 1803 and plays flute, guitar and flageolet, a penny-whistle. At 13 begins to compose enrolls in a Paris medical school and later transfers to the Paris Conservatoire.
Harriet Smithson
Berlioz became interested in Shakespeare and obsessed with the actress _____________.
Symphonie fantastique
Berlioz’s obsession with Harriet Smithson inspired the program of his Symphonie Fantastique, in which the protagonist pines for his beloved.
idee fixe
A single melody that recurs within each movement of Symphonie Fantastique and represents the artist’s obsession with his beloved.
March to the Scaffold
by Berlioz (1830) is a symphony with full orchestra from France and is Programmatic Music from Symphonie Fantastique.
killed his beloved
In March to the Scaffold the artist takes opium and dreams he ________ ____ _________ and the guillotine executes him
Robert Schumann
composer born in Germany (1810) plays piano, sings and compose early and performs for the first time at 11. Attend Leipzig law school then studies piano with Friedrich Wieck. His right hand becomes weak so he focuses entirely on composition and marries Wieck’s daughter Clara
Clara Wieck Schumann
one of the few women that received professional recognition in music in the Romantic era. She was a leading concert pianist and a talented composer.
A suite for piano, illustrates the personalities of many of Schumann’s friends, as well as his internal personalities.
“Eusebius” and “Florestan”
By Schumann (1835, Germany) from a Suite for solo piano which is programmatic Music from the Suite “Carnaval”
Shows Schumann’s sensitive and pensive side a slow and introspective adagio
Demonstrates Schumann’s inner flamboyant virtuoso. Fiery and improvisatory.
The four-note ________ motive unifies the entire work of Schumann’s Carnaval.
Edvard Grieg
Composer born in Bergen, Norway (1843)Mother teaches him piano at 15 composes and studies piano at the Leipzig conservatory in Germany. Moves to Copenhagen and marries Nia Haerup, his vocalist cousin. 1874 becomes a conductor and composer.
Edvard Grieg
Composer born in Bergen, Norway (1843)Mother teaches him piano at 15 composes and studies piano at the Leipzig conservatory in Germany. Moves to Copenhagen and marries Nia Haerup, his vocalist cousin. 1874 becomes a conductor and composer.
Solveig’s Song
By Edvard Grieg (1875-6) incidental Music with singer and Orchestra from Norway and is programmatic and Nationalistic music from the Peer Gynt Suit.
Peer Gynt
Grieg wrote the incidental music for ____ _____ a play by the Norwegian Henrik Ibsen.
In Griegs “Solveig’s Song , Lolveig sings for the ________ of her scoundrel lover, Peer Gynt.
Russian Five
a group of composers who sought to develop a distinctly Russian brand of Romanticism: Modest Mussorgsky, alexander Borodin, Mily Balakirev-Leader, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Cesar Cui
Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks
by composer Modest Mussorgsy (1874) from a Suite for solo Piano called Pictures at an Exhibition. Composed in Russia and considered Programmatic Music.
Pictures at an Exhibition
By Mussorgsky contains 10 movements inspired by artwork by Viktor Hartmann.
promanade theme
A recurring _____ ____ links the movements and represents a viewer wandering between pictures at an art exhibition.
Mussorgsky’s “Ballet of the Unhatched chicks” reflects upon costume designed for the ballet ________.
Maurice Ravel
Composer that orchestrated this suite and made it famous.
Faust Symphony
by composer Franz Liszt(1854) is a symphony using full orchestra from Hungary and the style is Programmatic Music.
Goethe play
Liszt’s Faust Symphony depict three characters from a ______ ______;Faust, a scholar, Gretchen, his beloved, and Mephistopheles, the Devil to whom Faust sells his soul