A rapid series of ascending or descending notes on the musical scale
Tone Clusters
A tone cluster is a musical chord comprising at least three consecutive tones in a scale. Prototypical tone clusters are based on the chromatic scale, and are separated by semitones. For instance, three adjacent piano keys (such as C, C?, and D) struck simultaneously produce a tone cluster. Variants of the tone cluster include chords comprising consecutive tones separated diatonically, pentatonically, or microtonally. On the piano, such clusters often involve the simultaneous striking of successive white or black keys.
In music and music theory, a bichord or polychord consists of two or more chords, one on top of the other.[2][3][4]
The use of polychords may suggest bitonality or polytonality. Harmonic parallelism may suggest bichords.
Examples may be found in Igor Stravinsky’s Petrushka, p.15, and Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Adolescents” (1921) [5] (see Petrushka chord). They may also be found in the song “Point of No Return” from Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom of the Opera, including chords such as E?m over Fm.[6]
Fourth Chords
chords by fourths not thirds
Pentatonic Scale
its origin, example of this scale is playing all the black keys as a scale on piano. Whole step – Whole step – Whole + half step – Whole step…..5 notes
Whole Tone Scale
Whole – Tone Scale – Scale made up of whole steps
A style of dramatic vocalization between singing and speaking
The absence of a key; alternative to the diatonic system
12 Tone System
Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, twelve-tone serialism, and, in British usage, twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. The technique is a means of ensuring that all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are sounded as often as one another in a piece of music while preventing the emphasis of any[2] through the use of tone rows, an ordering of the 12 pitches. All 12 notes are thus given more or less equal importance, and the music avoids being in a key. The technique was influential on composers in the mid-twentieth century.
Used to determine pitch order in 12-tone system
In music, serialism is a method or technique of composition (Griffiths 2001, 116) that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements. Serialism began primarily with Arnold Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, though his contemporaries were also working to establish serialism as one example of post-tonal thinking (Whittall 2008, 1). Twelve-tone technique orders the 12 notes of the chromatic scale, forming a row or series and providing a unifying basis for a composition’s melody, harmony, structural progressions, and variations.
Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence in the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.[1][2] Expressionist artists sought to express meaning[3] or emotional experience rather than physical reality.[3][4]
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century style of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style had its beginnings with the publication Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stephane Mallarme and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and ’70s. During the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestoes and attracted a generation of writers. The name “symbolist” itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moreas, who invented the term to distinguish the symbolists from the related decadents of literature and art.
Neoclassicism is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome). These movements were dominant in northern Europe during the mid-18th to the end of the 19th century.
Neoclassicism, in a cultural, artistic, and architectural sense, grew as a response against Rococo, which was seen as over-the-top and shallow.[1] Architecturally, it was characterized by similarities to classical structures as well as the Renaissance, including order and simplicity, and artistically, it was also modelled on works from the classical world, often containing political themes including bravery and war.[2]
Debussy – (French) Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun (1894), Depicts poem by Mallerme – The Afternoon of a Faun Friend of poets and artist Impressionist Influences – Jazz and Asian music and was influenced by robert wagner
Stravinsky (Russian) – The Rite of Spring – Extreme range of the instruments – Large Orchestras – Student of Rimsky-Korsakov – 3 Stages – Neo-Classical – 12 tone – Serialism
Schoenberg – Austrian Wrote Moonstruck Pierrot – Atonal – Credited for the 12 tone System ` Numerologist ` Expressionist` 1st wrote Atonal music` then developed 12 tone system ` Moved from Vienna to US during WWII ` Taught at University of California at LA ` Wrote also: A Survivor From Warsaw – a dramatic Cantata
Expressionist ` Student of Schoenberg – was composer in 2nd Viennese school ` Wrote few works
Webern Austrian– Five Pieces for Orchestra ` Most of his works are short lasting 2 – 3 minutes ` Wrote Atonal as well as 12 tone music ` Student of Schoenberg ` Expressionist
Bartok Hungarian – Concerto for Orchestra ` Influence – Folk music, Folklore, Classical music and 20th Century music…fused ` them into his own ` Collector of Folk music
Charles Ives
Charles Ives – Putmans Camp ` Influence – Ragtime, revival hymns, music from childhood, village band, barn dances, patriotic songs, church choirs ` Successful in Insurance ` Father was a bandmaster
William Still
William Still – Afro-American Symphony ` Influence – Jazz, black gospel ` Popular music and band arrangements.
Aaron Copeland
Aaron Copland (American) Parents were Russian/Jewish – Appalachian Spring ` Influence, folk, jazz, American Sounds ` Wrote polyrhythms, polychords….used serial techniques, tone rows like 12 tone,.
Prepared Piano
: Invented by John Cage. Alters sound by placing objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, paper etc. between the strings to alter the sound. This is the only additional term you will need to know for this section.
– Use of the technique of 12-tone system to organize rhythm, dynamics and tone color.
– Music that uses short melodic material with steady pulse and clear tonality.
Chance Music
– Music that chose pitch, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods such as throwing a coin. Often, the conductor or performers would have choices of the order these pitches and rhythms were played.
Aleatoric Music –
Another word for chance music. Taken from (Latin alea or game of chance).
Musical Quotation –
A break from serialism. The quoted material usually to convey a symbolic meaning transformed with other music. Ellen Taaffe Zwilich’s Concerto Grosso is an example of this. She uses parts of a Handel Sonata juxtaposed with her original music.
Liberation of Sound:
Finding sound in things other than traditional instruments.
Electronic Music
– Uses taped music sometimes with live sound.
: Uses ideas from minimalism combined with expressive melodies and varied orchestral colors.
John Cage:
American Chance music, known for concentration of silence in music.
Edgard Varese:
French Practiced liberation of sound also wrote electronic music.
Ellen Taaffe Zwilch:
American Composer and professional violinist. Wrote Quotation piece, Concerto Grosso
John Adams
American Post-minimalist. Conductor as well as composer.