Baroque Period
A Fugue is a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices-usually three or four-built on a single principal theme, called a subject.  This subject appears again and again in each instrumental or vocal line.  The term fugue comes from the Latin word Fuga which means "running away."  The subject stays the same, but it takes on endless new shadings as it turns corners and surrounds itself with different melodic and rhythmic ideas.  Fugue can be a style or a genre. Fugue is an academic form; a learning style

Fugal Exposition


A fugue begins with an exposition in which all the voices present the subject in an orderly, standardized way.  The contrapunctal lines in fugues are referred to as voices, even when the fugue is written for instruments.

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The subject enters as a single voice while the other voices wait.  Any voice can begin.  This section of the fugue (the exposition) is over when all the voices have stated the subject. 

The counter-subject occurs once the first voice finishes with the initial subject.  The last voice to enter does not have a counter-subject, as the exposition is over once the last voice has performed the subject.

Subject/Counter-subject Diagram



Alto                  Subject-counter-subject———–


Tenor                            Subject-counter-subject-


Bass                                          Subject


The layered subject over counter-subject is invertible counterpoint.

Subject entries
Subject entries come in different keys. 

One subject overlaps another entry in time, with the second jumping in before the first is complete.  A stretto occurs at the end of the fugue.


Soprano Subject

Alto          Subject

Tenor            Subject

Bass                 Subject

The passages of music separating the later subject entries are called episodes.  They provide a contrast to the subject.
The Art of Fugue

Bach wrote The Art of Fugue at the end of his life.  It was published in1751.  This huge work consists of twenty different canon and fugues. Written every possible way to write a fugue. The Art of Fugue was written for harpsichord, but is sometimes played by an instrumental group of some kind that allows the individual voices to be heard more clearly.


The Art of Fugue, Contrapuntus 4

In his "art of fugue" Bach showed off but in Contrapunctus 4  he seemed interested in long, smooth, and attractive episodes that come between the subject entries.  After an episode, four more entries follow the same order, modulating to a major key. 

Listening chart on Pg. 147

Dance Suite
The custom was to group a collection of miscellaneous dances together in a genre called the Suite   Composers usually wrote "styalized" dances, meaning their music was intended for listening for listening rather than dancing.  Styalized dances naturally allowed for more musical elaboration and refinement, while still retaining some of the special features of the various dances.  All the dances in a suite were kept in the same key, and the last of them was always fast-frequently a gigue, a dance in compound meter that may have been derived from the Irish jig.


Four most common dances 






Other Dances





Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D

The Suite in D is scored for  the festive Baroque orchestra: Strings, two oboes, three trumpets, two timpani and harpsicord. By Beethoven


Basic Baroque Orchestra

The Basic Baroque Orchestra

STRINGS                      KEYBOARD

Violins                           Harpsichord or Organ



Bass Viol

(playing the same

 music as the cellos,

 an octave lower)

The Festive Baroque Orchestra

Strings       WW             Brass

Violins 1      2 Oboes       3 Trumpets

Violins 2      1 Bassoon



Bass Viols


Percussion           Keyboard

2 Timpani            Harpsichord or

(kettle drum)        Organ

The sonata form

   Exposition                        Development           Recap        

Themes:   2nd grp.             Various                       (same as

                                       themes                          the

First  bridge  2nd  Cadence    Development                   expo.)

theme        theme    theme              (retransition)



Opera Buffa-Italian

Opera Comique-French


Don Giovonni


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart wrote Don Giovanni  in 1787 for Prague, the second largest city of the Austrian Empire.

Musically Don Giovanni is an Opera Buffa but it is niether wholly comic drama nor wholly tragic.  Mozart classified Don Giovanni as a Dramma Giocoso.


He(Don Giovanni) kills the Commandantore and invites his statue to dinner.  The statue shows up and Don Giovanni is swallowed by the Earth.


Duet, "La ci darem la mano"

one of the most famous tunes from Don Giovanni. 

a Duet between Don Giovanni and Zerlina.

Genres that will be on this test!



Grand motet-polychoral


Opera Buffa




imitative-Josquin-Missa Pange Lingua

Non Imitative-Du Fay-Misse L’homme Arme

Chordal-Palestrina-Missa Papae Marcelli

Missa L’Homme arme

Written by Du Fay. Title by the CF. The tenor voice  has the C.F.  It is in retrograde-moving backwards or like Dr. McFarland said, "like a crab."  It is turnary.  The tune itself is linked to the fall of the city of Constantinople, modern day Istanbul.( FYI!!! She said either answer would work)


The kyrie is set up ABA for Kyrie I, Christe I, Kyrie.  The Agnus Dei I is set up with ABA.  Agnus Dei II has no C.F. because the Tenor line is taken out.  The Agnus Dei III has ABA’ in retrograde then goes forward with the C.F.



Missa Papae (Pope Marcellus Mass) 1555

Written by Palestrina.;;;The Gloria and Credo movements are;chordal rather than imitative.; This mass was;chordal;because;the Council of Treant said the text needed to be heard and understood.;;

Missa Pange Lingua c.a. 1500

;It is a paraphrase mass, meaning;it has to be imitative because the C.F. is in all of the voices.; Starts with a 1/2 step interval.


Gabrieli worked in the San Marco Cathedral in Venice, Italy.; He was one of two organists (his uncle being the other).; Died in 1612.; Wrote in the polychoral style-having more than one ensemble.;Wrote;;O Magnum Mysterium;.; Had a student named Schutz;;;;

O Magnum Mysterium

Written by Gabrieli.; Uses 2 choirs,one made up three voices and another made up of four instrumentsplus an organ. The Alleluia is thrown back and forth between voices and the tune changes from duple to triple meter. Towards the end, all voices come together for a dramatic alleluia at the end of the piece.
Grand Motet
indicates instruments as well as voices.
Schutz was a German Lutheran.; Wrote one volume of polychoral music in Latin while Venice and 2 in German once he returned home.; Uses Chorale tunes in his volumes, though not as much as other Lutheran composers.
-Born in Bonn, Germany
-Most of his artistic life was spent in Vienna
-Worked with Haydn only because Mozart was dead
-Was very rude to Haydn, saying that he hoped that he would learn from Mozart’s spirit through Haydn
-Had three different musical periods within his ife
*1st period *2nd period *3rd period
–1802 –1802-1812 –1812-1827
Classic Innovated/ “Abstract”
-Wrote Musical Sketches
-Bonn works were also called the “WOO” works (works without opus).