____ mode starts on D and its hypo____ mode starts on


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( D is finalis)


____ mode starts on E and hypo_____ starts on B


(Finalis is E)

Phyrigian and Hypophrygian Mode

____ mode starts on F and hypo____ starts on C


(Finalis is F)


Lydian and hypolydian mode

________mode starts on G and hypo _______ starts on D


Finalis is G

Mixolydian and hypomixolydian

______ mode starts on A and hypo______ starts on E


(Finalis is A)

Aeolian and hypoaeolian mode
Finalis is another way of saying what?
The TONIC of the piece.
The reciting tone is also known as what ?  Also how do you find this tone?

The reciting tone is also known as the Dominant (V) of the tonic or Finalis –


IE- If the Finalis is F  -the mode is Lydian – and the V of an F scale is C – therefore your reciting tone is C and it makes up the Hypolydian scale.

What type of motion is forbidden in 16th century counterpoint in a melodic line?
“similar/hidden/direct” – 5th’s, 8th’s, 12th’s, and unisons.
What must happen when approaching an perfect interval?
1– one of the 2 voices must move by step, 2– The note preceeding the perfect interval must form a consonance, and 3– the notes preceeding the perfect interval must be WHITE notes.
What kind of whole note can occur ONLY on a strong beat?
Dotted whole note
what kind of note can only occur on a half note beat?
dotted half note ( ie do not tie from a shorter to a longer note value)
Can you write syncopated half notes?
No, they are rare in this literature.; – another way of thinking of this is NEVER tie from a weak quarter note.

What are some tendencies for points of imitation?

( Ie: they start slow and speed up later in the peice)

1-Start piece with a whole note or longer

2. avoid placing a long value in the middle of a phrase ( dotted whole note or longer)

3. After a point of imitation begins – and speeds up use Quarter notes liberally.

4.; Use pairs of 8th notes only occasionally

What does first and 2nd species counterpoint mean?
first is note against note ( whole notes) and 2nd is two notes against one ( half notes agaisnt whole)
Name the perfect consonances:
1,5,8,12,15th… etc
Name the Imperfect consonances:
3,6,10, 13, etc
Name the dissonant harmonic intervals:
2, 4, 7, 9 , 11, and ALL DIM and AUG intervals…
What are some types of motion in two voices?
Parallel, Similar, Oblique, and Contrary
What must happen when two voices start together on white notes?
They MUST begin with a perfect consonance!!!
the first note of the piece has to be atleast a _____________ in length.
a whole note
The final cadence of a piece must be one of two things….
Unison or an Octave! – AND the motion must be STEPWISE in BOTH voices.

Perfect intervals must be approached by what?


What is the ONLY exception?

Perfect intervals must be approached by contrary or oblique motion ( no parallel; or similar motion unisons, 5th or octaves)


**The only exeption is : sometimes a P5 may be approached by similar motion – and in this case only one of the voices has to move by step.**

How many consecutive Parallel 3rds or 6ths is acceptable?
3… but 4 is the absolute maximum!!
Consonant intervals larger than _______ are somewhat less frequent – because the voices are so seperated.
an octave
How much voice crossing is acceptable?
a good rule of thumb is no more that 20 percent of the piece should have voice cross.
Where should unisons appear? Strong or weak beat?
The WEAK beat
Can octaves be used on strong beats? how often?
yes they can, but they are to be used very infrequently
avoid more than ___ perfect intervals in a row….



** Use a mixture of P and IMPerfect intervals; with a preference for imperfect consonances. ( 3 and 6)


What should you avoid doing with simultaneously in both parts – on white notes?
Skipping in both voices at the same time…
What notes are to be used in addition to Bflat?
only natural notes.; – and only use Bb for a specific purpose.
What are the only notes that can be used as ficta and only as what?
F#, C#, and G# – and they can only be used as CADENCES!
What kind of leaps or skips are PROHIBITED – with the acception of an octave leap?
Augmented, diminished and any leaps larger than a 6th!

What kind of skips of a 6th are to be avoided?



descending skips of 6ths… and also ascending skips of a Major 6th.
Outlines of what intervals are prohibited?

Augmented 4ths and Dimished 5ths ( ie Tritones)


* outlines are the interval from a temp high and a low point – or reverse)

Use ____ more requently than ____
Steps – Skips
What should you do preceed and or follow a skip with?
Steps in the opposite direction
avoid more than how many skips in succession?
avoid more than 2 skips in succession – and if you do use 2 skips in a row keep them SMALL… ie- 3rds!!!
If you use a combo of skips and steps try to do what?
try to keep the larger interval below the smaller one
How many repeated notes in a row is acceptable?
2 – avoid any more than 2
avoid how many melodic sequences?
avoid melodic sequences of more than one reiteration
What should you not do with the highest and lowest points of the piece?
They are important but you should not over use them to diminish thier importance
is it ok to use a static line emphasising a single pitch?
no, avoid a static line and overuse of one pitch
Stepwise motion through melodic lines are often _____ by ________ in the line
They are often disguised by diversions in the line
Quarter notes are most likely found in what kind of motion and in what direction??
Quarter notes are most frequently found in stepwise motion and in the SAME direction.
a single quarter note is only found after what?
a single quarter note is only found after a dotted half note
Are quarter rests common?
No! they are very rare- do not use them
Pairs of quarter notes are found where? ALSO can they acscend and descend?
Pairs of quarter notes are found only on the weak beats and they can acsend or descend
is there a certain number of quarter notes that can follow a white note?
no, any number of quarter notes can follow a white note.
when a pair of half notes follow a dotted whole note or a whole note what direction do they usually go?
they descend
Where do portamentos( anticipations) usually occur?
Portamentos occur on the off beat of strong beats only and they resolve down by step
Where can neighbor notes occur?
Neighbor notes occur on the off beat of strong beats only!
LOWER neighbor notes are much more common that upper neighbor notes.
What is a Nota Cambiata?
Nota Cambiata is a special idiom of melodic motion that is very common, it is a configuration of a step and descending leap
When can you leap to a quarter note?

1, if it is following a half hone or a dotted half note

(if a single quarter note follows a dotted half you have to leap DOWN and compensated by a change in direction)

What should you do when you leap from a quarter note to a white note?
leave the quarter note by contrary motion
Downward leaps go from what kind of beat to what kind of beat???
they go from the beat to the off-beat – UPWARDS leaps go from off beat to beat.
Where should your direction go after; a leap?
It should change direction
When using black notes what intervals of leaps is acceptable?
In general keep the leaps small, ie- 3rds and 4ths anything else is unusual.
Where are 8th notes ( fusas) found? how often should you use them?
8th notes are found in pairs on any off beat – they should be stepwise passing notes or lower neighbor notes and only use them occasionally
Can you have a suspension in quarter notes?
NO – only with 1/2 and whole notes
diss unaccented passing notes may occur in ______ in the off beat of what kind of beat?

Quarter notes on the off beat of any kind of beat.


THEY MUST PASS – that is the other voice must be at least a half note!

When a consonant half note on a strong beat is followed by two stepwise descending quarter notes; which note can be dissonant?
the first beat
when 2 quarter notes on a stong beat are followed by a half…. what does the half note HAVE to be?
teh half note following the 2 quarters has to be consonant!
Dissonant lower neighbor notes are _____ on any ____ beat AND Dissonant upper neighbor notes are _____
They are ok on any off beat, and upper diss neighbor notes are very rare. – DONT USE EM
What should portamentos only be used for and how?
Portamentos are only used to accept a suspension and they should always be consonant
Can any notes in a cambiata be dissonant?
yes the 2nd note.
Portamentos are an ornament for suspensions.. what else is used as an ornament of suspensions?
In what kind of cadence do both the voices go to the cadential goal?
In what kind of cadence does one voice go somewhere else and the other resolves up to the goal?
Evaded Cadence
What kind of cadence does one voice rest, while the other goes to the cadential goal?
Interrupted Cadence