In 3 voice counterpoint vertical chords were treated as a super position of constant intervals above what voice?
The lowest voice
What are the possible positions of sonoroties in 3 voice writing?
5/3-Root Pos, 6/3 First inversion ( 2nd Inversion is not possible because it creates a diss 4th with the bass)
What note is usually doubled in a 3 part chord?  what doublings are also possible or rare?
The bass voice is usually doubled, doublings at the unison are possibe, but doublings in the upper voice and at the octave are rare.
Chords used at the opening or conclusion of 3 voice compositions are limited what are the possibilities?
Most typical: octave w double top, octave with doubled bass, 8/5, 8/3, 5/3, 10/5.
What do most 3 pt peices close with?
either a double octave or a unison
what position do diminished triads appear in ?
They appear ONLY in 6/3 (1st inversion) – SO the dissonant interval occurs btw the upper voice.
Augmented triads in what position are VERY rare?
6/3 position
C#, F#, and G# is what and what is NEVER done to it…
It is Ficta and it is NEVER doubled. EVER.
THE one and only case of doubling ficta is what…
what should you strive to do with the voices and what intervocalic span is acceptable between voices?
Strive to keep the spacing between the voices very close, esp in the upper voices, also the total intervocalic span should never exceed a PERFECT 12th
What is permitted in short stretches?
voice crossing
What are the rules for perfect intervals in 3 voice texture?

-NO PARALLEL unisons, 5ths or octaves ( hint- sometimes voice crossing can FIX parallels)


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-Unisons are permitted as doubled notes on any beat BUT they must be approached AND left by contrary motion or oblique motions.

What is Fauxbourdon Technique?
it is extended passages of consecutive stepwise first inversion chords. (6/3) – not common for the 16th century but SOMETIMES used.
In Direct 5ths what must the voices do simultaneiously? What about direct octaves?

One of the voices must move step-wise while the other leaps


Direct octaves are somewhat rare but same rules as teh direct 5ths apply

What should you avoid doing with the voices in relation to movement?

having all voices moving or leaping in the same direction.


What note values must you have in 3 voice passing notes and suspensions?
ONLY Half note values are permitted
what must a half note passing note move against?

a consonant whole note


single passing notes are common – what direction do they go in?
They can ascend or descend

Double passing notes in what are permitted?


Double passing notes are permitted in 3rd and 6ths and also contrary motion
What kind of suspension is most common in 3 voice?
The most common sus in 3 voices is 4-3 suspensions.

The bass voice may ____ upon the resolution of the suspension  but the doublings of the resolution on the next beat is ____


Leap, Rare
7-6 suspensions are possible in what positions?
7/3 8/7 and 7/5 ( however in 7/5 the 3rd voice must move upon the resolution or the sus in order to avoid a diss. in the upper part
2-3 suspensions have four possible positions what are they?

4/2, 5/2, 6/2, and 9/2


4/2 and 5/2 resolve to either a root or 1/st inversion triad

the 9-8 and 2-1 sus are the same thing… are are very infrequently encountered… what are the more common 9-? suspensions?
9/3 and 3/2
Double Suspensions are found in what occasion – what pair of suspensions are NOT found together…

7-6 and 4-3, and 9-8 and 4-3…. 


9-8 and 7-6 together are NOT found

The 7-6 sus resolving to an octave in the soprano and tenor for the basic structural duet for what?
what suspension is otherwise known as the authentic cadence?

the 4-3 cadence



5 –

4 3




Where is the plagel cadence encountered?

The plagel cadence is normally encountered at the end of a composition


In this plagel cadence the last chord is always a complete triad…


In terms of tonal music it resembles a half cadence

The plagel cadence is more of a mini codetta following the more structual ______ cadence



a movement twards the 4 subdominamnt is found over a tonic pedal as a closing gesture.

 deceptive cadences occur where?

Deceptive cadences occur at the conclusion of interior phrases of a piece.


Sometimes the bass of an authentic cadence will not resolve into the octave but more into another tone creating a depceptive formula.

What are interrupted cadences used as?

They are used as interior punctuation


2 of the voices resolve into 8ves or unisons- while the 3rd part is free to initiate the next point of imitation


* The suspended voice is required to resolve-


Dovetailing does what? and what can it be used as- what kind of cadence?
Dovetailing preserves the seamless quality of the polyphony – used as an interior cadence
when does the lead voice of imitation enter in a dovetail cadence?

In a dovetail cadence the lead voice of the point of imi enters BEFORE the cadential formula is complete. 


the overlap is normally not more than 4 half notes in furation – and is very effective maintaining the rhythmic flow of the music

Is the 6/5 sonoroity technically considered a dissonant chord?
no, the 6/5 sonority is not a diss chord. bc both upper voices are intervocalically consonant w the lowest part.  BUT bc the diss of a 2nd btw the upper pts the 5th above the bass is treated like a sus.
what beat does a 6/5 sonority always fall on?

The 6/5 sonority always falls on a strong beat



(when the sus 5th resolves on the next beat the lowest voice usually moves upward by step)


6/5 is not normally employed as a part of a cadential formula ( but it does sometimes happen)

What does free-handling mean?
emphasising the consonant relation of the chordal intervals to the lowest part
What is a consonant 4th used for?

a consonant 4th is a device used to prolong the dominant in the bass of an authentic cadence


What beat does a consonant 4th happen on?

The weak beat above the lowest voice and serves as a preperation for the following 4-3 suspension usually a consonant interval. 


Example 5-5


Interval btw B+A voice

Essential harmony leaps may occur in other parts againts what?

Black notes/Passing tones.


Leaps must be consonant in BOTH voices however…

What does 3 voice imitation always involve?

5th relation btw the voices  – either a p5 or a p4 up or down


**this principle not only applies to the beg of imitation but any imi within the phrase….. 

What does Asymmetrical realtion in imitation mean?
It means the the note values of entrance are not the same…
What does symmetrical mean?
The entrance of all the imitations are the same distance apart
Is there a certain voice that must enter first in 3 pt ctpt?
No any voice may enter first
re-entries of the voice remain in the initial pitch class… but you have to keep what?
You have to keep the 5th relation btw the voices.
Can you make tonal adjustmenats and slight rhythmic alterations in reentries?
Yes you can as long as the 5th relation stays the same.
What technique do you use organum in …
Paraphrase technique
What is organum?

the practice of basing polyphonic pieces on pre-existant musical material


This is the most common practice procedure– out of 100 Palestrina examples 5 are free counterpoint….

what is paraphrase technique?

Elaborate quotation of a given chant in one of the voices.


In later stages the plainsong is given to the other voices in the pt of imi.

Is the entire chant phrase used when used in paraphase tech?

the complete chant is used in its entirety in atleast ONE of the voices if not all. 


Ellipsis means what in relation to plainsong?
Ellipsis is the omission of one or more notes in a plainsong.
What is the simpliest method to compose a 3 voice canon?
Start w the highest voice and then imitate in the lower voice at the same interval realation (5th or 4th below) @ the same temporal distance – creating symmetrical point of imitation
In symmetrical 3 voice canons  in fuga ( exact imi) style – the exact imi is usually what in the consequent voices???



so the subject is usually answered by descending 4ths – example – Sop c, Alto G and Bass D

why should you be on the look out for 6/3 chords containing 4ths?
They can create tritone problems
what is a problem with setting up cadences in canons?
You have to set up the cadence ahead of time in the top voice so by the time it get to the cadence teh figure is in the bass voice.  – use a 2-1 figure in the sop so you can use it in the bass at the cadence.
useing a repeat sign is an example of a what kinda canon?

A Perpetual canon
In 4 voice ctpt there is no overiding tendancy to ______  a particular triadic member ( root 3rd or 5th)
Chords featureing doubled 5ths or 3rds are found just as commonly as ____________ in a polyphonic texture
doubled roots
Doubling _______ is NEVER allowed – what is the ONE exception
Ficta- Bb is the only acception
Parallel Perfect Intervals  are _________
Avoid parallel and ______ 5ths



Example: A-E


What type of cadence tends to me more common as the voice parts increase
4-3 cadence
what is an imperfetta cadence?
half cadence
what is the only intervals allowed in final cadences?
Major 3rds-
The use of nota cambiata on an inner figure is….
What kind of passing tone is rare?
a cadential passing tone
When 7-6 leading tones are used the final chord will be a __________.

complete triad


Exception- 6th resolving to an 8ve and  final root positions cadence in a phrygian mode

What are the most common suspensions in 4 pt writing?
As a general rule when the number of parts increase ….
The harmonic rhythm tends to slow town.
Minum passing tones are –
Once all the voices have entered in the initial pt of imitation strict 4 part imi ………..

does not have to be maintaining for long periods of time.



One of the opening voices may have even dropped out by the time othe last part enters

What is 4 part familiar style?
Pieces that have been set in a basic syllabic manner resulting in a predominatly chordal or homorhythmic style. 
In familiar style the upper 3 voices are normally in what kinda structure?
Close structure – less than an octave btw sop and tenor
the consonant chords in familiar style show a striong tendancy twards what position?
Root 5/3 position
What note is usually doubled in familiar style ?
the bass note
The use of ______ for coloristic or harmonic purpose is used
The most frequent ______ movement btw chords is by p5 and m2 movement asc or desc
What is bifocal tonality ?
alterations btw major and minor keys
What is cantus firmus technique
basing polyphonic pieces on pre-existing material
What is the basic organization feature of 4 part writing?
5ths relationship to each corresponding mode

How do you create paried imitation?


the 1 and 2 voice come in at a 4th/5th relationship then cadence prior to the entrance of the remaining parts – the 2nd pair imitate like the first voices.


tenor drops out and reenters to start dovetailing to cadence

what is a double canon?
Double canon is a pairing tech in a 4 voice canonic writing where paired imitation becomes 4 in 2
What is a double subject ?
The initial 2 voices are not related thematically but form minature segments of free counterpoint,.
where does the pairing in both a paired subject and a double subject take place or between?
it takes place btw the sop and alto and the Tenor and bass
What is cantus firmus technique?

the technique of placeing a chant melody in the tenor and composing counterpoint above it


( 6th relationship w sop and then filling in alto and finally bass)

In a typical Cantus Firmus technique what is the melody based on?

pre-existing melody – either in whole or in part….


2 frequent examples and one of the most used are L’homme Arme and the tones of the guidonian Hexachord

Dorian starts on what note?
Phygian starts on what note?
Lydian mode starts on what note?
what note does mixolydian start on?
what note does the Aeolian mode start on?
Ionian mode starts on what note