opening section of a fugue, each of the voices states the subject or transposted version of the subject (called the answer).
Occurs in tonic key
Occurs in dominant key
Real answer
exact intervallic transpostion of the subject
Tonal Answer
Modified version of the subject, for purpose of conforming to the new tonal area
Subject entries
subject rested in various keys
secondary melody
Transition (optional)
prepares entrance of third and fourth voices, functions as sequence that modulates back to the tonic key
second countersubject (occasionally)
introduced as the final subject statments occur
Middle section
marked by sequential transitions
composed of fragments of the subject and countersubject material, bridge between transposed subject entries
overlapping imitative entries that add further complexity to the development of the subject material
Concluding section
final section, marks return to the tonic key, must halt the momentum and bring work to successful conclusion
D-D all white notes, minor, raise 6th
E-E white notes, lower 2nd
F-F, MAJOR, raise 4th
G-G, MAJOR, lower 7th
A-A, minor
C-C, Major
Minor, lowered 2nd and lowered 5th
final pitch of a given mode, determines identity of the mode
Range of pitches employed in a given voice, provides clarity regarding mode type
Rules for writing melodic line

Begin/end on same note

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ONE high point

Each voice stay w/in its ambitus according to mode, range should not exceed octave, exception of step at either end

Leaps other than octave shouldn;t exceed P5, m6 if ascending

Leap followed by step in opp. direction

No more than 2 skips (3rds) in same direction

DON’T OUTLINE TRI-TONE (fill line and follow by step in opp. direction)

Avoid repeating any note 3x in a row

Avoid repeated note patterns

Predominantly use stepwise motion

Penultimate note of cantus firmus must be modal step above finalis

Direct motion
both voices move in same direction
Contrary motion
voices in opp. direction
Oblique motion
one voice in either direction, while other sustained;
4 Fundamental rules of counterpoint

1. perfect consonance to perfect consonance= only conrary or oblique

2. perfect ” ” to imperfect ” “= any type of motion

3. Imperfect ” ” to perfect ” “= only contrary or oblique

4. ”     ” to imperfect consonance= any type of motion

P8, unison 3rds, 6ths, P5
2nds, 4ths, 7ths
Cantus Firums
fixed melodic voice, often derived from pre-existing material, to which other voices are added
Clausula Vera;
“Cadence”…expansion of 6th to octave, marking closure of a contrapuntal passage, contraction of 3rd to unison also acceptable
Musica Ficta
Chromatic alterations of the modal system used under specific circumstances, particularly when approaching cadence points, or when avoiding interval of tri-tone
Consonant ligatures
when both the upbeat and downbeat of tied note are consonant
Dissonant ligatures
consonant upbeat becomes dissonnt while sustaining through downbeat of following measure
Binary Form

Form consisting of 2 sections (AB), may include brief intro, and 1 sect. may be slightly longer than another


||: A :||: B :||

Major Keys: I—–V (V)—–I

Minor Keys: i—-III (III)—–i

Ternanry from

Form with 3 sections (ABA). B section provides contrast before return of A section


||: A :||: B A’ :||

Major Keys: I—-V (V)—I—(I)

Minor Keys i—-i (III)—–i—-(i)