Da Capo Aria
Where at the end of the section section, the performers return to the beginning fast section, making an ABA Form. with ritornellos in between each. ex. si, si ben mio
Italian Cantata
Vocal chamber work with continuo for solo voice with movements of aria/ recit set to lyrical or dramatic text.
ex. Clori Vezzosa e bella
Semi-dramatic piece of several singers and small orchestra for special occasions. ex. pioneer: Alessandro Stradella
poetic style with themes of love, idealized portrayal of country life, shepherds and nymphs.
Instrumental refrain between vocal stanzas of aria or cantata
San Petronio
Chruch that played as the the cneter ofr instrumental chamber music
Antonio Stradivari
Well-known violin maker of Cremona who was involved witht he production of 1100 instruments.
trio sonata
instrumentation including 2 treble instruments(violins) and basso continuo.
Sonata da camera
chamber sonata that had a prelude followed by numerous stylized dances.
sonata da chiesa
church sonata that included abstract movements with binary form or dances. It was often used as a substitue int he mass/ Proper & Antiphon.
Collegium musicum
association of amaterus fromt eh educated middle class who gathered to play and sing together for their own pleasure to hear professionals in private performances.
Buxtehude’s sacred vocal music concerts at his Church, ST Mary’s before Christmas. It was a free and attracted young musicians like Johann Sebastian Bach(20 years old).
Missa salisburgenss
prime example of polychoral music composed by Heinrich Biber with 16 singers and thirty seven instrumentalists.
Strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition intended to be sung by the Congregation.
Sacred concerto
In the 17th century, it was a composition on sacred text for one or more singers and instrumental accompaniment
keboard piece or lute piece resembling an improvisation taht maay include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue.
composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.
chorale prelude
relatively short setting for organ of a chorale melody, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an intrlude in a Lutheran church service.
composition in which one or more solo instruments contrast with an orchestra ensemble
a call for the full orchestra.
Ritornello Form
standard form for fast movements in concertos in the first half of the 18th century, featuring a ritornello for full orchestra that alternates with Episodes characterized by virtuosic material, played by one or more soloists.
a subsidiary passage between presentation of the main thematic material
male singers who were castrated before puberty to preserve their high vocal range, prominent int eh 17th and early 18th century in Opera especially.
Peio Ospedale della Pieta
one of four hopsitals in Venice, home for oprhaned, illegitimate, or poor boys and girls, which were run like restrictive boarding schools and provided excellent instruction to girls who showed talent.
concert Spirituel
Paris’s most prestigious concert organization that had a public concert series founded in 1725.
suites(set of insturmental, orchesral pieces) harmpsichord suites loose collection of minature dances and binary form.
L’art de touche le clavecin
The art of playing the harpsichord, 1716. Most importantsouces for performance practice of the french Baroque written by Couperin.
Les nations
Francois Couperin’s collection that contains 4 orderes, each consisting of a sonata di chiesa in several movements followed dance suites that combine sets of FRance and Italy in a single set.
Traite de l’harmonie
most influentail theoretical works ever written authored by J. P. Rameau. He takes an empirical/rational approach to music.
Fundamental bass
term coined by Rameau to indicate the succession of the roots or fundamental tones in a series of chords.
Brandenburg Concertos:
Bach’s best known orchestral works that are dedicated in 1721. He He alternated between Italian cocnerto and orchestral concertos.
St. Matthew Passion
it employs recits, ariasensembles, choruses chorales sung by chorus and ocrhestral accompaniment based on Matt 26-27.
Mass in B Minor
Bach’B only complete setting of the Catholic mass Ordinary. Some of the music borrowed from earlier works. it’s rumored as being inteded as an anthology of movements.
Cantus Firmus
an existing melody often taking from a a Gregorian chant on whicha new polyphonic work is based used especially for melodies presented in long notes. ex. nun komm, der heiden heiland-jsb
Church Cantata
a setting of sacred music that added poetic texts, among Lutheran congregation. It combined all musical schemes well.
Chorale Cantata
A sacred music in which the original chorale is presented, the inner stanzas with unrelated music are incldued and the harmonic setting of the same chorale.
Yearlycycle, the second level of seasoned catholic procedures.
Erdmann Neumeister
personed who coined and wrote for chorale cantata.
King George I
consequent rule after Handels first patron in London ,Queen anne that doubled Handel’s pension to 400 pounds.
Royal Acdamy of Music
joint stock companyw here 60 wealthy gentleman with the support of the king was for producing Italian opera.
King’s theatre in the Haymarket
theatre where Handel served as music director where he recrited GErman singers with the Royal academy of music.
Prma donna
the soprano singing the leading female role who sought to have the best arias which Handel would write for.
florid ornamentation
English Oratorio
Genre of dramatic music that orignated the seventeenth century combining narrative, dialogue commentary through arias, recits, ensembles, choruses and sintrumental music like and unstaed opera. ex. Handel’s saul.
oratorio that offers a series of contemplations of the Christian idea of redemption using biblical text going through the Life of Christ to his Resurrection.
Water Music
contains 3 suites for winds and strings played from a royal procession on the River thames for the King.
Music for the Royal Fireworks
for winds, composed to accompany fireworks set off in a London park to celebrate the peace of aix la-chapelle.
Bach Gesellschaft
Bach society, was founded by Schumann that collected and published a collected edition of Bach’s works.
St. Thomas’s School
Germany’s leading university, providing 50- 60 scholarships for boys and youths for musical/scholastic abilities in Leipzig.
little organ book, 45 short chorale preludes was used as introductions before the congregation sang the chorale. Interlude in a Lutheran church service.
Well-Tempered Clavier
2 keyboard books, each consisting of 24 preludes anbd fugue pairs in each minor and major key arrange in chromatics meant to demonstrate the equal temperament of the piano.
Goldberg Variations
group of 30 variations that reserve the bass/harmonic structure of the theme (sarabande inspired)
Musical offering
Bach’s 3 and 6 part ricercare for keyboard & 10 canons base dona theme proposed by Fred the great created out of improvisation.
Art of Fugue
book in Bach’s last decade demonstrate all fugal writing types containing 18 canons and fugues all based on subject. Last fuuge: bach(b-natural)
intellectual 18th century movement whose main themes were reason, nature and progress, the people of the Enlightenment bleieved in individual faith, practical morality, naturalness, and promoting universal education and social equality.
(voltaire, montesquieu, and
Rosseau) leading French Enlightment thinkers who developed doctrines about individual human rights in response to the terrible inequalities between common people and the privileged class.
Charles Burney
an 18th century observer and author who wrote A GENERAL HISTORY OF MUSCI the book as a repsonse tot he public’s demand for reading music and its past.
Galant style
18th century musical style that featured song like melodies, short phrases, frequent cadences, and light accompaniment.
Emfindsam style
close relative of galant style, featuring suprrising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms, and speechlike melodies .
the quality of being periodic, especially when this is emphasized through frequeent resting points and articulations between phrases and periods.
Heinrich Christoph Koch
18th century theorist who published 3 volumes of the “Introductory Essay on COMPOSITION” treatise aimed to teach amateurs who wished learn how to compose. he mainly compare d a musical phrase to a subject and predicate.
Classical music
tradition of repertoire of musical masterworks formed in 19th century including lesser works in the same genre possessing, noble simplicity, balance, formal perfection,diversity with unity.
Classic Period music
The era from 1730-185 overlappign Baroque and Romatnic Periods.
Alberti Bass
Broken Chord accompaniment common in the 2nd half othe 18th cnetury and nam,ed after Domenico Alberti who used in the figuration frequently.
Opera Buffa
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, sung throuout the chracter s were traditionally ordinary people from present day. They made caricatures of aristocrats, vain women, old men, servants, and military commanders. The origin lies in Commedia dell arte.

origins; la serva padrona

Opera seria
18th century genre of Italian opera, on a serious subject but normally with a happy ending, without comic characters and scenes.
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, performed between the acts of a serious opera/ play. Sometimes, it parodied the serious play. ex. La Serva Padrona.
Comedia dell’arte
improvised comedy popular in Italy since 16th century where the source of opera buffa is. REDEFINE!!!
Carlo Goldoni
italian dramtist who introduced refinements in the comic opera libretto where serious sentimental, woeful plots appeared with comic ones ex. la Bugona figliuola-Goldoni
Pietro Metastasio
Italian poet who became Vienna’s court poet. His works promoted morality, englightened rules, usually ending in heroism. Most of his works included pairs of lovers. he wrote for Mozart and Gluck.
Ensemble finale
when at the end of the act, all character are brought on stage with the action continued, becoming more animated untill all sing together.
ex. cogroscino and galuppi’s comic opera
Querelle des bouffons
pamphlet war in Paris mid 1750s between french and italian Opera when faced with operatic works.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
philosopher who prasied Italian composers’ emphasis on melody and ability to express any emotion. He was aleader of the Enlightenment in France and a major influence in Romanticism.
Opera Comique
In the 18th century, light french comic opera which used psoken dialouge instead of recitatives. It used vaudevilles (pop tunes) and original airs(ariettes)
Ballad opera
Genre of 18th century English comic play featuring songs in which new words are set to borrowed tunes. and has simple airs making fun of London society. Ex. Beggar’s Opera.
sining play, German genre of opera featuring spoken dialogue interpsersed with songs, chorsuses and isntrumental msuic. ex. die zauberflote
Raniero de Calzabigi
Gluck’s librettist, the poet he collaborated with for Orfeo ed Eurdidice and Alceste inw hcih Gluck championed poetry over voice.
in France, it is a strophic song on sentimental text with a simple expressive melody without the typical ornamentation over plain accompaniment
In Britain, these were new poems about recent events on a sentimental theme mean to be sung to a familiar tune.
song with German words, whether monophonic, polyphonic or voice with accompnaiment; used especially foir pholyphonic songs in the Renaissance and for voice and piano in teh 18th and 19th centuries. Ex. erlkonig, Reichardt.
Bay Psalm Book:
1st book in North american containing thirteen melodies for singing the psalms by the Puritans who settled in New England.
The continental Harmony
billing’s collection set to plain tunes(homophonic 4 part harmonizations of new melodies and fuging tunes) ex. chester and creation
William Billings
American composer who wrote 108 psalm /hymn settings and 15 anthems and canons. This book was the first colleciton published in North America nd first collection in North america by only one person.
Fuging tunes
18th century American type of Psalm of Hymn Tune that features a passage in free imitation usually preceded by Homophonic sections. ex. William billings, creation form the Continental Hamrony Collection
german speaking potestant moravians who newly settled in North America and used concerted airas and motets ex. herbst peter, antes.
type of piano from the 18th or early 19th centuries distinguished from later pianos by a variety of features, notably a smaller range and strings attached to a wooden frame rather than a metal frame.
simple binary form
binary form in which 2 sections are roughly equal in length and feature musical material is different or only loosely related.
balanced binary form
binary form in which the latter part of the 1st section returns in tonic in the latter part of the 2nd section but in tonic.
Rounded Binary form
Binary form in which the beginning or all of the first section returns in tonic in the latter part of the Second Section.
String Quartet
standard chamber ensemble consisting of 2 violins, viola, and cello.
Sonata form
Form typically used in 1st movements of sonatas, instrumental chamber works, symphonies, during the classic romantic periods.
In sonata form, 1st part of a movement, in which the main themes are stated, beginning in tonic and usually closing in the dominant.
In sonata form the section after exposition, which modulates through a variety of keys and which themes from the exposition are presented in new ways.
In sonata form, the 3rd main section which restates the material from exposition, normally in tonic.
a supplementary ending to a composition or movement; a concluding section that lies outside the form usually described.
Slow-movement sonata form
Classic-era variant of sonata form that omits the development.
Variations form
Form that presents an uninterrupted series of variants on a theme.
Minuet and trio form
from that joins 2 binary form minuets to create an ABA pattern, where A is the minuet and B the trio.
Rondo Form
musical form in which the main sections recur in tonic between episodes(subsidiary sections).
30 harpsichord sonatas published in 1738 by Domenico Scarlatti.
Frederick the Great
Carl Phillip Emmanuel Bach worked for him in Berlin for from 1740-1768.
Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments
an essay written by CPE BAch that is an important source of information on musical thought and practice of the period.
Sechs Clavier-Sonaten fur Kenner und Liebhaber(6 Clavier Sonatas for Connoiseurs and Amateurs)
the set of sonatas composed by CPE Bach that utilized empfindsam style. Specific characteristics were scotch snaps, dotted figures, triplets and running notes. The effects included descension(sighs), appogiaturas(melancholy), and turns with harmonic shifts(excitement)
originated from Italy. It is an opera overture from which symphony takes its name. Ex. Stamitz No. 8 in E-flat major 1st movement.
While Elector Palastine’s cour twas in place, it was one of the musical centers of Eurpoe. The orchestra became famous under J. Stamitz and performed J. Stamitz. Ex. Sinfornia no. 8 in E flat major 1st movement
Symphonie concertante
concerto-like genre of the late 18th century and early 19th centuries for 2 or more solo instruments and orchestra, characterized by its lightheartedness and melodic variety RELOOK UP.
Concerto first movement:
a form that contains 3 solo sections, reminiscent of sonata form enclosed between four orchestral ritornellos ex. j.C. Bach Concerto for harpsichord, piano, strings in e flat major op. 7 no. 5.
In concerto, it is introduced by a six-four chord where a cue is given for a dominant chord. It is a highly embellished passage, often improvised, then is followed by an important cadence and occurs before the end of a section.
entertainment music used as background to dinner parties or informal concerts.
large work for orchestra written in 4 movements, Sammartini, symphony in F maj no. 32 1st movement.
Esterhazy family
most powerful noble family in Hungary hired in 1761. Prince Paul Anton first to wanted to hire him. nikolaus raised his salary. He worked for them most of his career
the town where esterhazy acted as the main court. here there was an opera theatre, marionette theatre, and 2 music rooms.
Count Morzin
Haydn worked as a musical director and wrote his earliest symphonies for him.
resembles a bass viola but had an extra set of resonating strings.
Sturm und Drang
style that focuses on agitation, counterpoint, chromaticism. dramatic surprises and big harmonic shifts.
Johann Peter Solomon
impresario and violinist who convinced Haydn to come to London where he conducted and composed symphony. As a result, the creation piece was created.
Claude Francois marie Rigolet, comte d’ogny
Head of the French connosieur societywho commissioned Haydn to write 3 symphonies. The last of the set was the Oxford Symphony.
Slow introduction
The introduction that preced the exposition that tends to beharmonicallya nd rhythmically contrasting fromt he Allegro Exposition. ex. oxford symphony movement 1
Paris symphonies
commissioned by French capital, queen Marie Antoinette, consists of 6 symphonies. Here, it included learned style, popular style, and masterful technique
London symphonies
resulted as response to Johann peter Solomon to compose and conduct in London. it consists of 12 clarinets. Woodwinds and string have a greater independence. overall effect of this is: spaciousness and brilliant
Oxford symphony
written for French court but it is known as oxford becausei t is was played when he received his honorary doctorate from oxford university in 1791. movement order: 1.slow intro+sonata 2. slow mvmt. 3. minuet and trio 4. fast finale.
Baron Gottfried Van Sweitan.
Austrian ambassador to Brlin. librettist of haydn’s oratorios who got introduce young Mozart to Bach handel, haydn and Beethoven.
Leopold Mazart
Mozart’s father , violinist for archbishop of Salzburg serving as Kappelmeister he composed and wrote a treatise on violin playing. Leopold sacrifice dhis own learning for Wolfgang and Maria Anna(Nannerl)He toured them all across Europe.
Johann Schobert
a composer who Mozart met in Paris. In his harpsichord writing, he simulated orchestral effects through rapid figuration and thick chordal textures. His influence is heard in Mozart’s piano sonatas.
Mozart’s hometown. here, mozazrt was appointed as an unpaid 3rd concdert master at Archishop Collorado’s Court, where he was assigne to compose Church music.
The Haydn quartets
Mozart’s 6 quartets that he dedicated to Hyand in gratitude for all he learned form him. it went through multiple revisions. here, he borrowed Haydn’s more thorough development and his increasing contrapuntal texture.
opera seria
18th century genre of Italian opera, ona serious subject that normally goes with a happy ending, without comic characteracters/scenes
Opera buffa
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, sung throughout
Dramma giocoso
(playful drama) includes opera seria characters(nobles) and opera buffa characters(Leporello, masetto, Zerlina) and mezzo carretare (donna Elvira and Don Giovanni)
Mezza Carretera
in opera of the late 18th century, a term for character who fall between the category of serious and comic. often Mozart’s request. ex. donna elvira
German genre of Opera featuring spoken dialogue insterpsersed with comic character and songs, choruses and instrumental music. Also, it includes folklore.
a passage or section in an opera, oratorio, cantata or other vocal work in recitative style.
Accompanied Recitative
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize text.
shortened a section of da capo aria
lyrical monologue in an opera or other.
Da Ponte
Librettist of Mozart’s 3 operas: Marriage of Figaro, don Giovanni, and cosi fan tutti. he stayed in the oper buffa style but intensified social tnesions between social classes.
literary text for an opera.
Ensemble finale
at end of act, where all characters were gradually brought on stage with the action continued. In Mozart’s opera, characters clash which combines realism/ action. All enter with their own problems.
Napoleon Bonaparte
an army general and war hero who became the first consul oft he Republic. he crowned himselfemperor and expanded French territories. He ended the Holy Roman Empire and had his sibling be fellow rules. He used a government that was amore efficient legal system with uniformity and lower tax. His reign was over by 1815 though.
paris conservatoire
governmentally founded music school that as part of a new nation system of eduction to make training availability to all with merit instead of class, wealth or family tradition. It trained singers/instrumentalists with standard curriculum and exams in composition, theory, and music history. It was a model school for others.
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
The author of a famous composition treatise with hwhom Beethoven studied counterpoint with.
Prince karl von Lichnowsky
owner of the house where Beethoven had rooms. He would sponsor Beethoven’s concerts. Beethoven dedication 3 piano trios to him.
count Razumovsky
Beethoven dedicated string quartets to thim and he was also a apatron of Beethoven in Vienna. He was the Russian ambassador to Vienna who played 2nd violin in quartet in Europe. As tribute, Beethoven u sed Russian melodies.
Archduke Rudolph
Brtoher of Emperor Franz who joined Prince Kinsky and prince Franz Joseph Von Lobkowitz to provide Beethovan an annuity to stay in Vienna. he was also Bethoven’s studeitn in piano and composition.
heiligenstadt Testament
this is a letter in which Beethoven tells of his deafness to his brother. he writes a letter to his brothers aying he’s suicidal but must live for his art.
Eroica no.3 in e-flat major details:
longest symphony
on celebration of hero, originally thought to be Bonaparte.
seen as journey from challenge, struggle, victor.
1. theme transforms in different guises with an antagonist to go against.
in light of form: antagonist climaxes in development.
Resolution ofconflict =recap.
::has lengthy coda
::conceived this music with sketches beforehand.
music of the 19th century that had looser and more extended forms, greater experimentation wit h harmony, texture, richly expressive and memorable melodies improved musical instruments, an interest in musical nationalism and a view of a music as a moral force where there’s a link between the life of an artist and world around them.
Absolute Music
music that is independent of words, drama, visual images, or any kind of representational aspects.
Characteristic Music
Instrumental music that depicts or suggests a mood, personality, or scene indicated the title.
Program Music
instrumental music t =hat tells a story or follows a narrative, or other sequence of events, often spelled out in an accompanying text called a program.
song with German words, for voice with accompaniment. it has a focus on individual emotions and a folk style. ex. Gretchen am Spinnrade-Franz Schubert.
Lyric Poem
short, strophic poem on subject expressing a personal feeling or viewpoint
In 18th century, German poetic form that imitated folk ballad of English and Scotland was to set to music by German composers. The ballad expanded the lied in both form and emotional content.
Song cycle
A group of songs performed in succession that tells or suggests a story. ex. An Die Ferne Geliebte-Beethoven.
Wilhemlm Muller
the German poet who wrot ethe text of2 of Schubert’s song cycles. ex. Die Schone Mullerin and Winterreise
Modified strophic form
variant of strophic form in which the music for the first stanza is varied for later stanzas, or in which there is a change of key, rhythm, character or material. ex. Der Lindenbaum
Johann Goethe
the German poet who wrote the text of 59 poem sin which Shcubert set.
Heinrich Heine
poet whose set poetry from Lyrical Intermezzo was set by Schumann for his Dichterliebe song cycle. The emotions range from longing, fulfillment, abandonment, reconciling and resigning.
Drawing room ballads
in Great Britain, where songs for home performance were called this. Ex. Home Sweet Home, Henry Bishop.
Parlor Songs
Song for home-music making sometimes performed in public concerts as well. It is popular in U.S. & Canada and could appear in concert or a musical.
ex.Stephen Foster, Jeanie with the Light brown hair
Gradus ad Parnassum
composed by Muzio Clementi that consists of 100 exercises of increasing difficulty
Carl Czerny
student of Beethoven that wrote etudes(studies) & method books.
Lieder Ohne Worte
(songs without words) 48 short piano pieces grouped in eight books composed by Felix Mendelssohn
character piece
piece of instrumental music that depicts/suggests a mood, personality, or scene indicated by title.
Neue Zeitschrift Musik
new journal of music, schumann’s Leipzig journal where he offered his criticisms to empty virtuosity and glorified chopin, brahms, and Schubert.
Schumann’s 6th short character piece of Carnaval set that contained angular melodies, impassioned waltz, pulsating dissonances, sforzandos, where there is no clear harmonic conclusion. ti was named after the hero of Beethoven’s Fidelio.
Schumann’s short charater piece of carnival set that is slow, undancelike, with a chromatic bass lin and selective used of pedal with assymetrical rhtyhms.
Concert Etude
an instrumental piece designed to develop a particular skill and contained significant artistic content and these were played in concert. -ex. chopin.
A type of Folkiish dance in triple meter characterized by accents on the 2nd and 3rd beat often by doted figures on the 1st beat; or stylized piano piece in this style.
a stately polish professional dance in triple meter, or a stylized piece in the style of such a dance.
type of short piano piece popular during Romantic period marked embellished melody, sonorous accompaniment and a contemplative mood. It was inspired by Bellini’s bel canto style.
John Field
Irish pianist-composer who invented the genre of piano nocturne. He drew inspiration from vocal nocturne for 2 or more voices with piano or harp accompaniment meaning piano nocturnes=song without words.
Chopin was the first to attribute it to piano music. Instrumental piece inspired by the genre of a narrative poetry.
Nicolo Paganini
Italian violinist who raise dthe technique and mystique of the virtuoso to unprecedented heights. His influence encouraged Liszt to push the extremes with his piano playing and composition.
Operatic paraphrases
free fantasies on excerpts from a popular opera and retelling it with varied or combined themes. This serves as one way he arranged him music.
arrangement of a piece for an instrumental medium different from original. Liszt did this with Schubert songs, Berlioz, Beethoven’s symphonies, fugues or Wagner Operas.
Term popularized by Liszt for solo piano performances and used today for any presentation given by a single performer or small group. he pioneered the trend of having a wide range of music, and doing it from memory as he toured Europe.
Idee fixe
term coined by Herctor Berlioz for a melody that is used throughout a piece to represent a person, thing, or idea, transforming it to suit the mood and situation.
choral societies
amateur chorus whose members sing for their own enjoyment and may pay dues to purchase music, pay the conductor and meet other expenses. Ex. Berlin Singakademie
Berlin Singakademie
choral society that originated as a singing class for wealthy women but added men in 1791. Director was Car friedric Zelter, then Fasch and Mendelssohn with 150 to 350 under Zelter. Zelter also added orchestra for oratorio.
a song for more than one voice. In the 19th century, a song for chorus, parallel in function and style to the Lied or parlor song. Written for 2 or more voices , unaccompanied 1 person-per-part where the themes are patriotic, sentimental, or convivial.
Elizabeth Stirling
renowned composer/organist who happened to be the first professional woman organist.
Cecilian Movement
named after St. Cecilia(parton saint of music) where a capella performances of old and new works were encouraged.
Oxford Movement
aiming to restore all male chorus and to revive 16th century unaccompanied polyphony.
Salomon Sulzer
1st influential composer of the Reform movement of Judaism, cantor at reformed synagogue in Vienna, whose serve music was in modern styles. he also commissioned Schubert’s Psalm 92.
Dmitri Bortnyansky
Imperial chapel choir director at St. Petersburg that developed a new style of Russian church music with free rhythm and unaccompanied.
Reverend Richard Allen
Organizer of the 1st African American Methodist Episcopal church congregation and published a hymn book for his all-black congregation.
the Sacred Harp
collection of old and new church songs that includes som e pspirituals and songs used in southern revival meeting that uses shape-note singing notation.
shape note singing
a tradition of group signing that arose in 19th century America, named after the notation used in song collections in which the shape of the noteheads indicates the solmization syllables, allowing for easy sightreading in parts in church church congregations and local/regional gatherings.
Lowell Mason
Massachusetts-born, president of Handel and Haydn Society and cofound the Boston Academy of music and added music into the school curriculum. He preffered European notation over Shape-note singing. ex. Lowell Mason, Bethany
Handel and Haydn Society
society founded in Boston with the old music organization in US still active today.
Johann Von Schiller
The poet who wrote Ode to joy, a poem set as a choral finale in the Ninth symphony. He also was the possible inspiration to Beet’s Pathetique sonata in which the person triumphs over grief with reason.
Ode to Joy
text is from a poem written by Joahnn Von Schiller. The thematic focus revolves around universtal fellwoship through joy, and its basis in the love an eternal heavenly father. The form is full of recit material(accomp&insstrumental) the well known choral-orechstra exposition of a joy theme, fugue material witha choral coda.
Johann Von Schiller
The poet who wrote Ode to joy, a poem set as a choral finale in the Ninth symphony. He also was the possible inspiration to Beet’s Pathetique sonata in which the person triumphs over grief with reason.
Ode to Joy
text is from a poem written by Joahnn Von Schiller. The thematic focus revolves around universtal fellwoship through joy, and its basis in the love an eternal heavenly father. The form is full of recit material(accomp) the well known choral-orechstra exposition of a joy theme, fugue material witha choral coda.