Double Aria
Arias during this period consisted of two sections. A slow opening (1) and a (2) fast virtuosic ending (the ending is known as the cabaletta)
The fast virtousic ending of a double aria

German for “leading motiff” 

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Musical idea, that relates to something which is usually representative of a character or idea. First used by Ricahrd Wanger

Meaning total work of art. Incorporates all art mediums visual, audible, etc. Wagner controlled all of this by building his own designing his own theater, costumes, music, etc in the town of Bayreuth.
Tristan Chord
Creates harmonic ambiguity. You don’t know what key you are in because it can be resolved in many different ways. Created by Richard Wagner for his opera “Tristan Und Isdolde”
Germinal Chord
Used by Strauss in Elektra.
Mystic Chord
A chord created by Scriabin for his work Promotheos. The cords consists of 4ths and a tritones.
Beethovens 10th
In reality it is Bhrams 1st. It was very similar to what Beethoven would have written. Was composed from skethces of Beethoven unfinished 10th symphony.
Meaning a nations spirit. Deals with Nationalism. All music was included even folk music since;it was considered repersentative.
Refers to Italian Reunification. The Italian people were scattered during this time and fought for reunification. In protest people would graffiti V.E.R.D.I on walls. 2 reasons, 1. in order to mislead and make people believe you were a fan instead of 2. their love for Victorio Emauele re Di Italy (the King of Italy).
Song of Hiawatha
Originally a;Poem by Henry;Longfellow about Native American. Dvorjak was inspired by the piece when he wrote the 2nd movment of The New World Symphony. The slow movment is believed by some people to be a negro spiritual.
Moguchaya Kucha
Meaning the group of 5 also known as;the mighty handful.;A group of composers from;based in St. Petersburg,;included Korsokov, Balakirev, Mussorgsky’s.
Whole tone scale
Also known as a hexotonic scale because it consists of 6 notes. Has a static quality. Very hard to resolve. Can only be trasposed twice.
Les Six
The idea of using the same musical material but in contrasting tempos.
Progressive Tonality
Attributed to Mahler. Every Movment is in a different key, as opposed to keeping the entire work in a different key.
The use of two different keys at the same time. Stravinsky used this in his work Petrushka.
Non-pulsatile rhythm
“Bartok” pizzicato
The pulling of the violin string in order to get it to slap against the wood.
Vocal texture which includes a blend of singing and speaking. For the most part it is sung, but because of the pace it sounds spoken. Made famous in Burlesque and whore houses.
Cecillian movement
Tendecy amoung 19th century composers to restore Gregorian Chant and the style of 16th century a cappella polyphony as the ideals of church.
Wunderhorn Symphonies
Symphonies 1-5 by Gustav Mahler. Mahler took inspiration from Wunderhorn, a collection of poems, to write the symphonies.
Jewish band music. Used by…in his works.
Bronze instruments that are struck to produce sound. Inspired…in his works.