Preclassical Period
the transition from the Baroque Style to the full flowering of classical music.
Time span of Preclassical Period
Important Pioneers in this new style
Bach’s sons:
1. Carl Philipp Emanuel
2. Johann Christian
Around the middle of the 18th century , what did composers concentrate on in their music?
simplicity and clarity
What happened to the texture?
Polyphony was neglected. Favoured tuneful melody and simple harmony.
How did mid-eighteenth-century composers entertain their listeners? and what is this style called?
offered CONTRASTS of MOODS & THEMES. style gallant (light graceful music)
What style in art is style galant comparable to
rococo style
where is the term classical from?
art history
Traits found in fully developed classical style in music
parallel between “classical” and “neoclassical” art is a common stress on balance and clarity of nature.
Classical style flourished from about …
1770 to 1820
Master composers of the Classical Period
Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.
Characteristics of the Classical Style
-contrast of mood
classical composition would FLUCTUATE IN MOOD.
There are contrasting themes within a movement.
Striking contrasts within a single theme.
Characteristics of the Classical Style
adds variety to classical music
classical music has a wealth of rhythmic patterns
Contains unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes.
The change from one pattern of note length to another may be sudden/gradual.
Characteristics of the Classical Style
homophonic, as flexibly as rhythm. sudden/smooth shift from one texture to another.
Characteristics of the Classical Style
most tuneful and easiest to remember. a times, composers borrowed popular tunes. more often, wrote originals w/ a popular character.
They sound balanced, symmetrical cuz they are made up of 2 phrases of the same length.
Characteristics of the Classical Style
-dynamics and the piano
desire for gradual dynamic change led to the replacement of the harpsichord by the piano (around 1775).
Characteristics of the Classical Style
-end of basso continuo
why? more music was written for amateurs, who could not maser the art of improvise an accompaniment.
and classicalists wanted more control.
Standard group of 4 sections in a classical orchestra.
strings, woodwinds, brass && percussion.
1st violins, 2d violins, violas, cellos, double bass
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
2 French horns, 2 trumpets
2 timpani
Where were trombones used?
opera, church music, not solely in instrumental works
Bigger orchestra : classical or Baroque
classical compositions have greater variety of tone colour
most important section of the orchestra
violins – taking the melody
lower strings – an accompaniment
added contrasting tone colors , often given melodic solos
horns and trumpets
brought power to loud passages + filled out the harmony – not main melody
rhythmic bite and emphasis
Compositions of the classical period consist of movement that _____ and _____. how are 4 movements arranged?
tempo and character
1) fast 2) slow 3) dance-related 4) fast
classical symphonies and string quartets follow a ___ movement pattern.
classical sonatas may consist of ___,___,___ or ___ movements.
four; 2,3,4
what is a symphony written for
what (instruments) is a string quartet written for ?
2 violins, viola and cello
what is a sonata written for?
one or two instruments
Generar characteristics of the classical form? talk about themes (how many)
– contrast themes vividly
– contains 2/3/4 or more themes of diff. character (baroque has only 1)