While world music is a genre, musical exoticism can be classed as a process in which musicians freely interpret attributes of the music of non-western culture and targeting specifically at foreign audience. It Is the direct perception of the western audience’s view of non-western music tradition, not non-western perception of non- western exoticism, in other words not the true perception, only a concept.
As exotica is only an imitation, the authenticity of the music is often questioned, the lack of any link between foreign cultural tradition (musically speaking) often results In lilt free consumption by the audience as stated by Phillip Hayward. (Hayward, 1999: As technology become more advanced in the recent years, the lines of authenticity become more and more blurred because of wider acceptance of cross-cultural diasporas events happening throughout the world. The use of samples became more and more available to the world, many people utilized it in a way that it almost is another genre of its own.
Exotica exists in almost all type of genres because of this. With the globalization effect, both the audiences and musicians are within reach of any non-western music through the use of internet, television and many other types of media. This also lead to many fusion with western and and non-music with use of traditional elements. This tendency Is happening more and more recently. While western music are creating exoticism by incorporating non-western cultural traditions, usually by either collaborations or using non-western musical instruments and elements of it, e. . : Yang, Any, non-western musicians are also doing similar things, where non-western musicians try approach the western market by fusing heir cultural traditions with western musical elements. This can be seen with recent groups Like twelve girls band, a Chinese group of female musicians where by using traditional instruments incorporate modern (western) arrangements, created a form of exotica that is appealing to western mainstream audiences.
Marketing themselves in the way so that it fits its targeted audiences which are the western mainstream listeners but still categorizing themselves in the world music genre. It Is not Just this band uses the processes of exoticism to address to the world music market. In Papua New Guiana, with the announcement of independence in 1975, there has been a burst in the development of new [dependent indigence cultural groups who are enthusiastic about creating are reflecting in the new political change. These PANG contemporary style musicians were inspired by the energy and dynamism of newly Independent culture. Crowds, 1998: 13) chants and instrumental music with western rock and Jazz element, they created this contemporary PANG exotica style. Although unpopular within their locality, it was achieving success in the international world music market. The band has served as he aesthetic of PANG music style. Crowds stated: ” The bands can be seen to have acted as cultural ambassadors promoting tourism and cross-cultural exchange. ” (Crowds, 1998: 15) Image also plays an important part to their success in the international stage.
Their stage wear referred to as bills, traditional style of clothing consisting of native head- dress and knuckles and armbands from various cultures within the PANG community, which to the normal western audience will see it as Just one PANG culture. Even though they are more marketable internationally, they are having trouble to invoice overseas (bigger) labels to market their music because of their commitment of staying together as a group as members often have personal commitments inside PANG to attend to, they are bounded to one area. There are strong stand points on both sides in terms of their creativity.
On one hand, there is the idea of its preservation of tradition by using new means of conveying it, but on the other hand performing traditional music and mixing it with another culture questions its preservation of its original cultural meaning. Its originality has been lost and misled. This two-sided perspective is occurring not only in PANG contemporary music, but also in Asian exotica as well. A well-known band, twelve girl band has made its controversial debut in the international world music market, by fusing traditional Chinese instrument with western arrangements.
Many critics argue that they had originality in their music and that it is Just normal western music but using another types of instruments to play it. They have also marketed themselves in a way to appeal foreigners. In the Twelve girl band website, it described them as: ” One dozen beautiful young omen, all in their twenties, take the stage and stand before an array of exotic and ancient musical instruments. ” (http://www. Deliverables. Com/bio) Stressing on the image of oriental aesthetics of exoticism for the foreign audiences, and then it goes on the say: The band’s origin help explain this remarkable success.
To begin with, twelve is an important figure in Chinese numerology. There are twelve months in a year, twelve linchpin (or golden hairpins, representing womanhood) in ancient Chinese mythology. Implying heavily on the mythology ancient Chinese culture. It stress lots more of the mage of the band then the actual music itself. Obviously marketing to a foreign audience, creating a sense of mystery for them. This kind of introduction of the group only serve to appeal to western audience.
Firstly the website is in English, the description of “beautiful young women in their twenties” builds on the image of exotic Chinese culture. The biography later describes the music style only after the description of their image. This appears to be a technique to commercialism the group to make them as mainstream within the world music genre as possible. Continuing on with the geography the group explains that ” the group represents a strong new voice for global music. ” (http://www. Deliverables. Com/bio) This group of exoticism view themselves as among the world music genre.
They also compared themselves to Artists such as Any, The Buena Vista Social Club and Reverence. Hence stressing the point that they are wanting to appeal to mainstream western audience and they belong in the world music category. In their debut album, their music while consisting original songs, also had famous covers. Containing covers like Clocks by Coldly, as well as Only time by Any. Not only are they exoticism their own culture for the western audience, but they also exoticism music from other exoticism like Any.
In Louis Chide-Cookies Dry Satin’s echo chamber, Reggae, technology and the Dipodic process Chapter, he explain how echoes of cultural traditions are spread within different communities through the mass-media, sub-cultures and those cultures far away are able to interpret and create their own local meanings out of these echoes, (Chide-Cookies, 1999: page) This occurrence of diabolic process can be compared to the Twelve Girls Band, where the band is interpreting their own meanings out of stern music and incorporating their own local cultures to suit their diabolic space.
As for Chide-cookie’s study of this phenomenon only included black music of how the role of Reggae music, and the use of Dub technology had its effects and influence on all western style music today, but this phenomena not only is happening in black music, it is a global “echo chamber” as well. He stated “Reggae is not only a product but a productive mechanism” (Chide-Cookies, 1999: 58) Perhaps musical exotica is a process of productive mechanism in itself, not Just a product.
Music itself is, at an ever-changing state. Styles and genres intervene and Just like an echo chamber cultures bounce off each again and again creating something different each cycle. It is part of the cycle of evolution taking place in the music industry. The moving within the overall process of the “echo chamber”.