Is an admired aesthetic of attitude, behavior, comportment, appearance and style, influenced by and a product of the Zeitgeist. Because of the varied and changing connotations of cool, as well its subjective nature, the word has no single meaning. It has associations of composure and self-control (CB. The Definition) and often Is used as an expression of admiration or approval. Although commonly regarded as slang, it is widely used among disparate social groups, and has endured in usage for generations.

There is no single concept of cool. One of the essential heartsickness of cool is its mutability-?what is considered cool changes over time and varies among cultures and generations. [l] Nick Southeast writes that, although some notions of cool can be traced back to Aristotle, whose notion of cool Is to be found in his ethical writings, most particularly the Mechanical it is not confined to one particular ethnic group or gender. Although there is no single concept of cool, its definitions fall into a few broad categories.

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Cool as a behavioral characteristic The sum and substance of cool is a self-conscious aplomb in overall behavior, which entails a set of specific behavioralcharacteristics that is firmly anchored in cosmology, a set of discernible bodily movements, postures, facial expressions and voluptuousness that are acquired and take on strategic social value within the peer context. [3] Cool was once an attitude fostered by rebels and underdogs, such as slaves, prisoners, bikers and political dissidents, etc. For whom open rebellion invited punishment, so it hid defiance behind a wall of ironic detachment, distancing Itself from the source of authority rather than directly confronting let. [4] cool as a state of being Cool has been used to describe a general state of well-being, a transcendent, internal peace and serenity. [5] It can also refer to an absence of conflict, a state of harmony and balance as in, “The land Is cool,” or as In a “cool [spiritual] heart. ” Such meanings, according to Thompson, are African In origin.

Cool Is related In this sense to both social control and transcendental balance. [5] Cool can similarly be used to describe composure and absence of excitement in a person-?especially in times of stress-?as expressed in the idiom to keep your cool. In a related way, the word can be seed to express agreement or assent. As In the phrase “I’m cool with that”. Cool as aesthetic appeal Cool is also an attitude widely adopted by artists and intellectuals, who thereby aided its infiltration into popular culture.

Sought by product marketing firms, idealized by teenagers, a shield against racial oppression or political persecution and source of constant cultural innovation, cool has become a global phenomenon that has spread to every corner of the earth. [2] According to Dick Fountain and David Robins, concepts of cool have existed for centuries in several cultures. [l] Cool as an epithet While slang terms are usually short-lived coinages and figures of speech, cool Is an especially ubiquitous slang word, most notably among young people.

As well as being understood throughout the English-speaking world, the word has even entered the general positive epithet or interjection, which can have a range of related adjectival meanings. – Regions Africa and the African Diaspora Your bronze head sculpture from the city of Fife, Nigeria c. 12th century A. D Author Robert Affair Thompson, professor of art history at Yale University, suggests that ‘tutu, which he translates as ‘mystic coolness,'[6] is one of three pillars of a elisions philosophy created in the 1 5th century[7] by Your and Gobo civilizations of West Africa.

Cool, or ‘tutu, contained meanings of conciliation and gentleness of character, of generosity and grace, and the ability to defuse fights and disputes. It also was associated with physical beauty. In Your culture, ‘tutu is connected to water, because to the Your the concept of coolness retained its physical connotation of temperature. [8] He cites a definition of cool from the Goal people flabbier, who define it as the ability to be mentally calm or detached, in an other- orally fashion, from one’s circumstances, to be nonchalant in situations where emotionalism or eagerness would be natural and expected. [5] Joseph M.

Murphy writes that “cool” is also closely associated with the deity Sun of the Your religion. [9] Although Thompson acknowledges similarities between African and European cool in shared notions of self-control and imperturbability,[8] he finds the cultural value of cool in Africa which influenced the African Diaspora to be different from that held by Europeans, who use the term primarily as the ability to remain calm under stress. According to Thompson, there is significant weight, meaning and spirituality attached to cool in traditional African cultures, something which, Thompson argues, is absent from the idea in a Western context. Control, stability, and composure under the African rubric of the cool seem to constitute elements of an all-embracing aesthetic attitude. ” African cool, writes Thompson, is “more complicated and more variously expressed than Western notions of sang- frond (literally, “cold blood”), cooling off, or even icy determination. ” (Thompson, African Arts) The telling point is that the “mask” of lowness is worn not only in time of stress, but also of pleasure, in fields of expressive performance and the dance.

Struck by the re-occurrence of this vital notion elsewhere in tropical Africa and in the Black Americas, I have come to term the attitude “an aesthetic of the cool” in the sense of a deeply and completely motivated, consciously artistic, interweaving of elements serious and pleasurable, of responsibility and play. [10] African Americans Ronald Perry writes that many words and expressions have passed from African American Vernacular English into Standard English slang including the contemporary meaning of the word “cool. [11] The definition, as something fashionable, is said to have been popularized in Jazz circles by tenor saxophonist Lester Young. [12] This predominantly black Jazz scene in the U. S. And among expatriate musicians unpartisan helped popularize notions of cool in the U. S. In the sass, giving birth to “Bohemian”, or beatnik, culture. [2] Shortly thereafter, a style of Jazz called cool jazz appeared on the music scene, emphasizing a restrained, laid-back solo style. And self-possession, of an absence of conflict are commonly understood in both African and African American contexts well.

Expressions such as, “Don’t let it blow your cool,” later, chill out, and the use of chill as a characterization of inner contentment or restful repose all have their origins infract American Vernacular English. [14] When the air in the smoke-filled nightclubs of that era became unbeatable, windows and doors were opened to allow some “cool air” in from the outside to help clear away the suffocating air. By analogy, the slow and smooth Jazz style that was typical for that late-night scene came to be called 5] Marlene Kim Connors connects cool and the post-war African-American experience in her kook What is Cool? Understanding Black Manhood in America. Connors writes that cool is the silent and knowing rejection of racist oppression, a self-dignified expression of masculinity developed by black men denied mainstream expressions of manhood. She writes that mainstream perception of cool is narrow and distorted, with cool often perceived merely as style or arrogance, rather than a way to achieve respect. [16] Designer Christian Laconic has said that “… The history of cool in America is the history of African-American culture” . 17] Cool pose Malcolm X “embodied essential elements of cool” . [18] Cool’, though an amorphous quality-?more mystique than material-?is a pervasive element in urban black male culture. [18] Majors and Billion address what they term “cool pose” in their study and argue that it helps Black men counter stress caused by social oppression, rejection and racism. They also contend that it furnishes the black male with a sense of control, strength, confidence and stability and helps him deal with the closed doors and negative messages of the “generalized other. They also believe that attaining black manhood is filled with pitfalls of discrimination, negative self-image, guilt, shame and fear. 19] “Cool pose” may be a factor in discrimination in education contributing to the achievement gaps in test scores. In a 2004 study, researchers found that teachers perceived students with African American culture- related movement styles, referred to as the “cool pose,” as lower in achievement, higher in aggression, and more likely to need special education services than students with standard movement styles, irrespective of race or other academic indicators. 20] The issue of stereotyping and discrimination with respect to “cool pose” raises complex questions of assimilation and accommodation of different ultra values. Jason W. Osborne identifies “cool pose” as one of the factors in black underachievement. [21] Robin D. G. Kelley criticizes calls for assimilation and sublimation of black culture, including “cool pose. ” He argues that media and academics have unfairly demonic these aspects of black culture while, at the same time, through their sustained fascination with blacks as exotic others, appropriated aspects of “cool pose” into the broader popular culture. 22] George Elliott Clarke writes that Malcolm X, like Miles Davis, embodies essential elements of cool. As n icon, Malcolm X inspires a complex mixture of both fear and fascination in broader American culture, much like “cool pose” itself. [18] East Asia Main article: Cool Japan In Japan, synonyms of “cool” could be Ski and SSI. These are traditional commoners’ aesthetics of Japan to samurai, but this is historically inaccurate. In fact, samurai from the countryside have often been the target of ridicule by the commoner in the civilized Eddo in many art forms including Aragua, a form of comical story telling.

Some argue that the ethic of the Samurai caste in Japan, warrior castes in India and East Asia all resemble cool. [l] The samurai-themed works of film director Kara Sarasota are among the most praised of the genre, influencing many filmmakers across the world with his techniques and storytelling. Notable works of his include The Seven Samurai, Yogi, and The Hidden Fortress. The latter was one of the primary inspirations for George Lacuna’s Star Wars, which also borrows a number of aspects from the samurai, for example the Jed Knights of the series.

Samurai have been presented as cool in many modern Japanese movies such as Samurai Fiction, Shamuses,[23] and which was appropriated in American ivies such as Ghost Dog[25] and The Last Samurai[26] In The Art of War, a Chinese military treatise written during the 6th century BC, general Sun TTS, a member of the landless Chinese aristocracy, wrote in Chapter XII: Profiting by their panic, we shall exterminate them completely; this will cool the King’s courage and cover us with glory, besides ensuring the success of our mission.

Proof. Paul Wally considers Tokyo one of the world’s “capitals of cool. ” Asian countries have developed a tradition on their own to explore types of modern ‘cool’ or ‘ambiguous’ aesthetics. In a Time Asia article “The Birth of Cool” author Hannah Beech describes Asian cool as “a revolution in taste led by style gurus who are redefining Chinese craftsmanship in everything from architecture and film to clothing and cuisine” and as a modern aesthetic inspired both by a Mining-era minimalism and a strenuous attention to detail. 27] Paul Wally, professor of Human Geography at the University of Leeds, considers Tokyo along with New York, London and Paris to be one of the world’s “capitals of and the Washington Post called Tokyo “Japan’s Empire of Cool” and Japan “the coolest nation on Earth”. Analysts are marveling at the breadth of a recent explosion in cultural exports, and many argue that the international embrace of Japan’s pop culture, film, food, style and arts is second only to that of the United States. Business leaders and government officials are now referring to Japan’s “gross national cool” as a new engine for economic growth and societal buoyancy. 29] The term “gross national cool” was coined by Journalist Douglas McGraw. In a June/July 2002 article in Foreign Policy magazine,[30] he argued that as Japan’s economic Juggernaut took a wrong turn into a ten-year slump, and tit military power made impossible by a pacifist constitution, the nation had quietly emerged as a cultural powerhouse: “From pop music to consumer electronics, architecture to fashion, and food to art, Japan has far greater cultural influence now than it did in the sass, when it was an economic superpower. [31] The notion of Asian ‘cool’ applied to Asian consumer electronics is borrowed from the cultural media theorist Eric Mclean who described ‘cool’ or ‘cold’ media as stimulating participants to complete additive or visual media content, in sharp contrast to ‘hot’ Edie that degrades the viewer to a merely passive or non-interactive receiver.

Europe Mona Lisa, or La Giaconda (La Cocooned), by Leonardo dad Vinci experimentation’s, an “aristocratic “Aristocratic cool”, known as supersaturate, has existed in Europe for centuries, particularly when relating to frank amorality and love or illicit pleasures behind closed doors;[l] Repeal’s “Portrait of Balderdash Castigation” and Leonardo dad Vine’s “Mona Lisa” are classic examples of supersaturate. [32] The supersaturate of the Mona Lisa is seen in both her smile and the positioning of her hands.