Exam one was returned for student’s review. Listening assignment for this week was distributed and uploaded to mix. Ensemble- usually a small group of performers Polyphonic- The simultaneous sounding of two or more melodies of equal importance. Group Work: Sidney Becket First notable Jazz saxophone player, soprano sax Played clarinet, too. Composer Professional by age of 6. Louis Armstrong 1901-1971 [Greatest trumpet player] The most Influential Jazz musician Learned to play the bugle In home for boys

First to be considered a jazz artist. Big Bedecked 1903-1931 1924 Formed a band named the Wolverines Trumpet player From Iowa First “cool” artist Influenced by Debussy, classical music The King Designation reserved for trumpet players A “King” was designated by peers. Joe “King” Oliver was the last designated King. Joe Oliver mentored Louis Armstrong Early New Orleans Jazz- Ease of style, 4/4 rhythm, included cornet, trombone, clarinet, drums Chicago Style- sass’s, faster, more intense, featured solos, 2/4 rhythm, instruments now included: guitar, sax, string bass Notes on Board cot 9, 2013

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Another listening assignment was distributed and will be uploaded to MIX. Reminder: Next exam is on October 30th, 2013 Scat Singing- The use of nonsense syllables while improvising vocally. Obbligato- An accompanying or free melody played by a second instrument. We studied Louis Armstrong: Had an effect on all music that followed. [We listened to music from two movies: You’ve Got Mail and The Jungle Book which featured his music, though there are others] Made the impossible possible on the trumpet. Changed the whole idea of what a band was. Changed the way soloist thought of themselves.

He created interest in soloists because his talent was so obvious, people wanted to hear him play; Emerged as a solo instrumentalist Master accompanist Ensemble player Pioneer in scat singing [popular singer all around] Was first taught by instructor Peter Davis. [in the Boys Home] Was a protog of Joe “King” Oliver Armstrong was the first Jazz player to receive international fame His artistic style: well developed technique, tone, rhythm and a master at improvisation Armstrong created and recorded with bands in Chicago known as the Hot Five and later, Hot

Seven He knocked the Beetles off the Top 100 charts with Hello Dolly in 1964 He received the Grammar Lifetime Achievement Award in 1972 H) Notes on Board for Cot 16 Next exam: October 30th 2013; Page 1 of 2 A new listening assignment was distributed and all six pieces have been uploaded to Mix. You will need to be able to identify Title, Artist and Style for the next exam. We listened to the following pieces: All of Me, OK-OK, Maple Leaf Rag, West End Blues, Singing’ the Blues, Dipterous Blues.

Today, we are reviewing Chapter 6. Obbligato- An accompanying or free melody played by a second instrument. Swing- In general, swing refers to the music of large dance bands that played written arrangements and occasionally improvised solos. Swing Era- Era of Jazz in the sass and early sass. Riff-A short pattern of sounds repeated and played by a soloist or group. Mary Lou Williams First woman to compose/arrange for a large Jazz band Greatest female performer in Kansas City Her first public performance was at six years of age.

Composer and band leader Count Basis Joined the road show of Bennie Moment Became a big band leader and composer in Kansas City 928 played with Walter Page and Famous Blue Devils and nicknamed “Count” Played an economic piano style and organ Died 1984 Benny Goodman Named the King of Swing Played clarinet Organized his first band in 1934 Ella Fitzgerald Named the First lady of song and the Queen of Jazz By 1982 had received 10 Grammars and 22 downbeat readers polls Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom by George Bush National Medal of Arts by Ronald Reagan Sold 40 million records in 59 years Jimmie Luncheons Continued…

Page 2 of 2 Biggest diverse program of music by any black dance band His band played 19 engagements in WV’ Formed by a group of college students with unusual discipline Ranked as high as any other swing band Duke Longtime Proved that orchestrating was an art of the highest level His music was a combo of solo and ensemble playing One of the figures of the Harlem Renaissance Developed his own sound by using exotic trombones, growls, way wash, and high squealing trumpets and sultry saxophones.

Chick Webb Drummer One of the first band that appeared in NY Unable to read music, he memorized the arrangements played by the band In the id 19302 Ella Fitzgerald raised the band to prominence Could swing while playing lightly Fletcher Henderson Came to NY to study chemistry at Colombia but became so involved with music that he followed it instead Pianist Arranging was his most notable talent His arrangements [with the help of WV Don Redden] were used by the Benny Goodman orchestra Helped bridge the gap between age of Jazz and swing era He thought that too much improvisation was dreary and that polyphonic and Dixieland style were too risky [for large bands. ] Notes on Board, October 23, 2013 Exam next week, October 30th. Study Guide for exam 2 was distributed and will be uploaded to Mix.

Listening assignment for exam 2 was distributed and will be uploaded to Mix. Cotton Club- A Harlem night spot, this club was both a part of the Harlem renaissance and an expression of the racial divide. Plunger Mute- The rubber bottom of a plumber’s helper. Waving it in front of the bell off brass instrument like a trumpet causes the sound to be modified drastically. Cross-sectional voicing- Instead of all the saxophones playing together for example, grouping the voices (instruments) of a big band in a creative way. West Virginian Don Redden developed the arrangement of instruments for swing band: l)saxophones, 2)trumpets, 3)trombones, 4)rhythm.

The Duke Longtime, Chapter 7 Duke was born on April 29, 1899 [Edward Kennedy (“Duke”) Longtime, born in Washington DC] Duke was recognized as one of Jazz’s premiere composers He formed an effective balance between individuals and group expression because he struck a model between personal musical freedom [within his orchestra] while other band leaders restricted their individual musical freedom. By the age of 17, Longtime had a five-piece band called the Washington’s. Longtime began his career in New York as a leader in 1923. Some of the skills Longtime developed early in NY were: band leader, writer and composer and arranger. Duke helped lay a foundation for future musicians. Duke’s major instrument was the piano. He got his nickname “Duke” from a high school friend. [Because he always gave great attention to his appearance. ] Fats Waller and Willie (the lion) Smith were stride pianist who inspired Longtime.

The Cotton Club was a Harlem night club, which was both Harlem Renaissance and expression of racial divide. Duke Longtime was booked t the Cotton Club from 1927-1932 Longtime played: swing, Jungle Jazz, mood style, concerto, [standard] Duke didn’t like his music categorized as simply Jazz. It limited it. To “What about swing? ” He replied, “What about harmonics? ” After his mother died, Duke Longtime experimented with longer musical compositions and almost was robbed of his musical ambitions. [He overcame this grief. ] Billy Statutory- Composer and arranger for Duke Longtime. Of him, Duke said, ” Billy Statutory was my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine. ”