It Is very difficult to define jazz because It has so many varieties. Almost all Jazz styles have improvisations and swing feeling. Improvisation means compose and perform at the same time. Four ingredients that help music swing are steady beat, syncopation, lilting quality, and rising and falling of the melodic line. Charles Mining was a jazz bassist known for his composing and improvising. Dizzy Gillespie was a modern Jazz trumpeter who devised a highly syncopated style of improvising. Jazz musicians usually begin laying a tune they all know and then they make up their own music.

Chapter 2 Jazz musicians follow common practices while performing tunes such as the 12-bar blues and the A-A-B-A construction. The melody In a tone Is played before and after the Improvisation Is played. Rhythm section Is the part of a jazz combo that provides the accompaniment for the soloist. Chorus: Single paying through of the structure being used to organize the music In an Improvisation. Bridge: The B part of and A-A- composition. Walking bass: A bass note per beat. Coming: Syncopated chording accompaniment for an improvised solo. Chapter 3 New Orleans was the ideal site for the birth of Jazz because it was an intensely musical city.

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African American music such as blues and ragtime blended with European dance music and church music. Ragtime: A popular turn of the 20th century style of written piano music involving pronounced syncopation. Blues: A style of African American song, originally consisting of a vocal with guitar accompaniment that often expresses a lonesome or sad feeling. Creole of color: A person who has mixed French and African ancestry and was born In the New World. Scott Joplin was he most Important ragtime composer. Chapter 4 Collective improvisation: Simultaneous improvisation by all members of a group together.

Stride: Left hand style used by early Jazz pianist. Front line: Musicians appearing directly in front of the audience. James P Johnson was the greatest of all stride style pianists. Fats Waller was the most popular Jazz pianists-composes of the 1 sass and ass. Louis Armstrong was one of the first great soloist in Jazz history. He played trumpet. Big Bedecked was the first cool Jazz musician. Bessie Smith was the empress of the Blues. Chapter 5 Call and response: A technique In which one section states a theme as a question and another answer It. Rhythm guitar style: Guitarist strumming one chord on each beat.

Break: Portion of a piece in which all band members stop plying except the one extemporaneously that wasn’t written down. Roy Elderly was the most daring trumpeter of the sass. Coleman Hawkins was the father of the Jazz tenor saxophone. Scat singing: Improvisation using the human voice. Billie Holiday was the most influential singer in Jazz after sass. Chapter 6 Bebop differed from swing by using smaller bands, richer chords, and faster playing. Asymmetrical accent: An accent that falls in an unexpected Bomb: A pronounced accent played by the drummer, often dropped in an unexpected place.

Max Roach was the leading bebop drummer. Charlie Parker was the most significant saxophonist of the twentieth century and an inventor of bebop. Theologies Monk was the first bebop composer and pianist. Bud Powell was the most influential bebop pianist. Dexter Gordon was the first bebop tenor saxophonist. Chapter 7 West Coast Jazz: The Jazz style associated with Dave Bruce, Paul Despond, Gerry Mulligan, and Chew Baker during the sass, often applied to classify cool Jazz by California-based white musicians. Progressive Jazz: A term coined by Stan Kenton to describe his own music.

Leonie Tristan was a pianist-composer who invented a modern Jazz alternative to the bebop style of Bud Powell. Baritone saxophonist Gerry Mulligan and trumpeter Chest Baker were distinguished for their dry, subdued approach to modern Jazz. Count Basis and Lester Young were important influences on the cool Jazz style. Chapter 8 Hard bebop evolved directly from bebop during sass, mainly among East Coast and Midwest musicians. Hard bebop differs from bebop by having more variety in accompaniment patterns, fewer pop tune chord progressions, and more emphasis on hard swinging.

Horace Silver was the leading pianist-composer bandleader in hard bebop. Clifford Brown was the favorite trumpeter for most Jazz musicians of the sass. Freddie Hubbard was the most imitated trumpeter of the sass. John Coloration was the most influential saxophonist since Charlie Parker. West Montgomery was the most influential guitarist in modern Jazz. Chapter 9 Free Jazz: An approach associated with Ornate Coleman and Cecil Taylor, in which the music contains improvised solos which are free of preset chord progressions, and moieties also free of preset meter.

Modal Jazz: Jazz improvisation based on a mode (or scale) rather than on chord changes. Floating pulse: A method of improvising that avoids stressing the most obvious beats, while extending phrases across several beats, pioneered by Bill Evans; also called non-obvious pulse. Ornate Coleman was the best-known free Jazz musician. Bill Evans was the most influential pianist of the sass. Chapter 10 Jazz-rock: A variety of styles beginning in the late sass that use Jazz improvisation, electric instruments, funk rhythm section accompaniments; also known as fusion music.