Jazz Music Jazz Is associated with the African American people and this Is an Influence unequaled in the field of music. The true spirit of jazz arises from a revolt from convention, custom, authority, and boredom, even sorrow, from everything that would confine the soul of man. The blacks that invented it called their songs the “blues,” and they weren’t capable of satire or deception. Jazz was their explosive attempt to cast off the blues and be happy, carefree happy, even in the midst of sordidness and sorrow. Jazz Is a release of all the suppressed emotions at once. Jazz Is a part of the erect process of African American music.
In rhythm It goes directly back through ragtime, through the minstrel period, through the spirituals and dances to its African origin. Jazz, as we know it, is a product of the age in which we are living. For that reason, it is not pure black music, but rather, the African American reflected in modern life. The music is reflective of the restlessness and syncopated lives of the American temperament. The manner of production of Jazz Is rhythmic and usually referred to as “black rhythm. ” In It there must exist a spontaneous physical abandonment to the moving accents of the music. Jazz began as an improvisation.
The first Jazz players knew the tune, but all of the “quirks” and “turns” which made it “Jazzy” were created as they progressed; each man for himself, blending, syncopating, gliding, harmonize, throwing in offbeat and rhythmic patterns which somehow or another held together and made Jazz. In addition, Jazz has created its own method of Instrumentation, unlike that of any other type of music. Molded In native rhythms. Improvised melodies, stimulating harmonies, and refreshingly new methods of instrumentation, jazz has come to develop that quality of music which is n aspect of permanency, namely style.
Analysis As early Jazz developed In the US, so did Its popularity. Although other cities caught on, the primary region of the south that would have the most Impact and a better scene was Louisiana, particularly the New Orleans. The New Orleans was known for its relaxed atmosphere and a diverse population of races- African, French, Italian, and Portuguese- and was home to gambling Joints, dance halls, and saloons. The New Orleans Jazz had developed a newer kind of sound- “Dixieland”- and brought out a new breed of talented Jazz musicians such as Ferdinand “Jelly Roll” Morton, Joseph King” Oliver and Louis “Staccato” Armstrong.
Jazz critic Max Harrison described Louis as “The first true virtuoso soloist of jazz, Armstrong was a dazzling improviser, technically, emotionally, and intellectually. He changed the format of jazz by bringing the soloist to the forefront, and in his recording groups, the Hot Five and the Hot Seven, demonstrated that Jazz improvisation could go far beyond simply ornamenting the melody he created new melodies based on the chords of the Initial tune” (1). Many New Orleans musicians, Including Armstrong, migrated to Chicago, Influencing
New Orleans style but emphasizing soloists, often adding saxophone to the instrumentation, and usually producing tenser rhythms and more complicated textures. Instrumentalists working in Chicago or influenced by the Chicago style included the trombonist Jack Degraded, the banjoist Eddie Condo, the drummer Gene Koura, and the clarinetist Benny Goodman. Also active in Chicago was Big Bedecked, whose lyrical approach to the cornet provided an alternative to Armstrong’s trumpet style. Many Chicago musicians eventually settled in New York City, another major center for Jazz in the sass’s. ) The New Orleans Jazz style came to pass, replaced by the oncoming swing era. This was carried forward by the bands of Duke Elongating, Count Basis, Benny Goodman, Glen Miller, Artier Shaw, Tommy and Jimmy Dorset, and many others (this movement was further helped by the newly-invented radio and the inexpensive phonograph record). In 1928 Edward “Duke” Elongating performed his famous stand at Harem’s Cotton Club. He quickly emerged as a major innovator in Jazz, and his large ensembles of twelve to fourteen pieces foreshadowed the swing craze of the middle sass’s (3).
Elongating was extinguished by his ability to compose creative pieces, such as “East SST. Louis Doodle- 00,” “Black and Tan Fantasy,” and “Take the A Train,” with individual members of his orchestra in mind. Many of these compositions have become Jazz standards that are performed all over the world. One major development in the emergence of the swing era was a rhythmic change that smoothed the two-beat rhythms of the New Orleans style into a more flowing four beats to the bar.
Musicians also developed the use of short melodic patterns, called riffs, in call-and- response techniques. Jazz vocalists also became increasingly popular and flexible; vocalists such as Vive Anderson, Mildred Bailey, Ella Fitzgerald, and, above all, Billie Holiday were among the leading singers. The swing era continued through World War II and beyond. In 1945, jazz once again evolved and became redefined- this time by a young alto saxophonist from Kansas City. Charlie Parker was his name, and he is said to be the founder of the newly defined Jazz sound of the day- Bebop.
As Gary Giddings, Jazz critic, put it: A virtuoso alto saxophonist, Parker was the only musician after Armstrong to influence all of Jazz and almost every aspect of American music- its instrumentalists and singers, composers, and arrangers. By 1955, his innovations could be heard everywhere: in Jazz, of course, but also in rock and roll, country music, film and television scores, and even symphonic works. Parker altered the rhythmic and harmonic currents of music, and he produced a body of melodies- or more to the point, a way of melodic thinking- that became closely identified with the idea of Jazz as a personal and intellectual modern music. 4) The new generation of bebop brought forth many changes. It was no longer dance music- the tempos of bop rendered dancing impossible and therefore physically reduced Jazz music to that of listening only (5). It even began a public culture- as critic Lester Standstill states “the press and many musicians had established bebop… As a kind of cult, as though it were less a music than a life style, complete with flashy clothing, dark glasses, berets, beards, secret handshakes, and an extensive lingo of Jive talk” (5).
Jazz clubs became smaller, and so did the performing bands- combos and small groups dominated the scene. Bop placed a great deal of stress on the players themselves, ate sass’s brought forth an explosion of experimentation in Jazz. Modernized big bands led by Dizzy Gillespie and Stan Kenton flourished alongside small groups with innovative musicians. Yet another new style of Jazz was to be born- “cool” Jazz. Such influences to this genre are classical composers like Bach, Stravinsky, and BartГ¶k.
This also inspired a fusion of cool Jazz and classical music known as third stream, pioneered by composer and French horn player Gunter Schuler and the Modern Jazz Quartet, which carved out a small following but never gained wide popularity. Another approach began to be heard in the very late sass’s in the groups fronted by Miles Davis (trumpet), Ornate Coleman (saxophone, trumpet, and violin), and John Chlorate (saxophone). It was known as free Jazz- a style that was not based on regular forms and established chord patterns.
John Chlorate was the most influential musician of that genre- his tone was “large, intense, and equally powerful in all registers… A fury of passion through ingenious improvisation” (6). Chlorate had a deep interest in Indian and Arabic music, and infused those learned techniques to his improvisations. He composed many songs, such as the path-breaking “Giant Steps”, which used a new type of chord pattern to soon be followed by many modern jazz musicians. The sass’s were also a time of embracing radical new ideas, including Black Nationalism and protesting American military action in Vietnam.
Saxophone players Archie Sheep, Pharaoh Sanders, and Sam Rivers were playing fierce, sometimes angry music that wailed and lamented. Instead of the predictable format of small groups (theme, solos, theme [a-b-a pattern]), free Jazz emphasized group improvisation, lengthy solos, and static harmonic development. Also associated with free Jazz is that of abstract or avian-garden improvisation (7). After the experimental jazz of the late sass, the genre became directionless and was also having to compete with the increasing popularity of rock music.
The result was the birth of jazz-fusion and the success of Miles Davit’s album, Pitches Brew, in 1970, encouraged many other Jazz musicians to tackle this new musical style. But, while the music of Miles Davis, Chicago and Blood, Sweat and Tears could be described as Jazz-rock, a genre which Jazz critics refused to accept, the music was closer to Jazz-funk and the ululates of Herb Hammock’s seminal album, Headhunters. It was an updated version of the soul-influenced Jazz music of the late sass, but with the earthiness of those recordings extracted and replaced with a smoother texture.
This was often complimented with lush orchestral strings, classical guitars and flutes that gave the music the feeling of a film soundtrack. For some critics, the Seventies was the decade in which Jazz died. Jazz, was combined with the traditional styles of the music with the contemporary innovations in Latin, Brazilian and soul music. Winning a Grammar ward for Stan Getting Status Gilbert’s “The Girl from Panama”, was proof the success of the innovative ability to mix Jazz with other musical styles. (8) Donald Byrd is a player whose music has kept up with the times.
For 40 years, the trumpeter has been an integral part of American Jazz music. Influencing hard bop, Jazz fusion, and even the hip-hop “acid-Jazz” genres. For Byrd, they all come from the same wellspring. “Whether it’s hard bop or funk or hip-hop,” Byrd has been quoted as stating “to me there is no difference. It’s all an extension of the same thing. It’s all Black music and these are all valid expressions of that. His lyrical style on the worked closely with John Chlorate, Sonny Rollins, and Max Roach. In the ass, Bard’s abilities as a composer and leader came to the forefront, as he became one of the prime members of the Blue Note stable.
He played trumpet on Herb Hammock’s “Taking’ Off which included the now-classic “Watermelon Man. ” He recorded a number of seminal pieces, including the classic “Christi Rodent,” which was a hauntingly beautiful work combining instruments and voices. His other classic recordings include “Fancy Free” and “Electric Byrd,” which was a portent of things to omen. (9) In 1973, Byrd came out with a recording that set the tone of Jazz in the ass. “Black Byrd” was a landmark work in that it combined Jazz with R and funk.
It was one of the first Jazz recordings to rely on R vocals, and such elements of pop music as “a hook,” a catchy phrase that would be repeated throughout the tune. Innovators come in all styles. Much of the African-American music of the sass’s and ass’s owes a debt to George Clinton. His early work from the ass’s with Parliament and later Fungicidal defined funk and urban dance music. The rhythmic textures over-lapped n a new vital sound inspiring many musicians since. His influence on hip-hop and rap is evident in the bass-heavy rhythms and relaxed vocals added to this percussive mix.
All modern African-American music is in his debt. (10) Conclusion Name’s in Jazz are numerous with Dizzy Gillespie, America’s ambassador of Jazz; Earl Hines, the father of modern Jazz piano; Edwin Hawkins, composer of “O’ Happy Day”; Billy Cistern, famous big band leader and romantic ballad singer; James Cleveland, developer of modern gospel music, among others all represent the essence of Jazz. 11) Taking some quotes (12) we see what Jazz is all about: In his book ‘Venice West’, John Arthur Maynard writes: Jazz served as the ultimate point of reference, even though, or perhaps even because, few among them played it.
From it they adopted the myth’s of the brooding, tortured, solitary artist, performing with others but always alone. They talked the talk of Jazz, built communal rites around using the jazzmen drugs, and worshipped the dead Jazz musicians most fervently. The musician whose music was fatal represented pure spontaneity. In his only successful kook, ‘Go’, Beat author John Echelon Holmes wrote: In this modern Jazz, they heard something rebel and nameless that spoke for them, and their lives knew a gospel for the first time.