Relate each of the three music genres that developed on the Texas-Mexican border to Its cultural background and the group associated with Its widespread acceptance and dissemination. How did It change over time? Corridor The corridor has roots back to Spanish descendents in the 12th century. By the 1 5th century, the style was more developed; but the corridor really emerged after the Mexican-American War in 1846. This style became very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Mexico, and eventually Texas.

The corridor showcased the hanged in the role of Mexicans In relation to Americans. Songs often spoke of events, tragedies, or conflicts. The songs were very racially focused and would often act as protest to the social prejudices that they faced. After World War II, the theme changed to cover the necessary changes in social structure. The reading “The New Chicane Heroic Corridor” by Jose Villains discusses studies by Vaccine Mendoza, the leading scholar in studies of the corridor. Mendoza finds that the subject of the corridor has constantly changed over time.

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He lists many topics that have been the Ochs of corridor music over the years: historical, revolutionaries, bravery, killings, political, robbers, Jailing, rapes, persecutions, murders, evil, tragedies, horses, and a number of other categories. The reading also states, “Another category of corridor Is that of focusing women heroines instead of the traditional male heroes. One singer who made corridor popular was Lydia Mendoza. She is given credit for over 200 songs. She sang and accompanied herself by playing a 12-string guitar. Corridor used to Just be sung a capable, but she helped change this part of the culture of the radio. Basis was founded by Spanish descendents in 1100-1200 AD * Well developed by 1 5th century * Emerged after Mix-Am War (1846-1848) * Became very popular in late 19th, early 20th century in Mexico * Documented change in role of Mexicans in relation to Americans * Very racially focused (social protest gains prejudice) * After WI, new theme, changes in social structure Conjunct The conjunct style of music began in the late 19th century along the Mexican- American border. It was a style of music for the working class that was made up of the accordion and the Baja sexton.

The Baja sexton was originally used as a bass, but then became more commonly used as a regular guitar. In the sass, it spread through the southwestern United States with the help of the father of conjunct music, Narcosis Martinez. He focused his music around a fast-paced accordion. Valerie Longhorn added onto what Martinez began. Often referred to as the genius of conjunct, he tweaked his accordion to make It sound a bit different, and people have been trying to replicate It ever since. He also added drums and vocals to the music, which it didn’t have when the genre began. His music thrived after the Second World War.

He helped raise the music to a higher level, but not to the upper class. The reading “Musical Frittering/Border Music” by Manuel Penn hinted at the causes of conjunct music. It states, “It is critical to an understanding of the conjunction’s significance that its complex social context be taken into account. Its emergence was ethnic class friction. ” This was why it did not want to be seen as a song for those of the upper class. The working class took pride in their conjunct. Eventually, a man named Fallacy Jimenez, advanced the genre more, by combining techno music with country/western music from American popularity.

Emerged in the late 19th century along the border * Baja Sexton, first used as bass, then as guitar * Humble, rural origins * Working class dance music * In sass, spread through Southwest US (Arizona, Call, etc) * Narcosis Martinez, father of conjunct music, focused on fast-paced accordion * Valerie Longhorn, tweaked his accordion, people have been trying to replicate it ever since. Added drums. * Genius of conjunct music, added vocals, thrived in post WI. Raised too higher value, but not upper class. Requests Speaking of upper class, this was where the requests thrived.

It was developed in the sass, to give the upper class Mexicans a version of American ballroom dances, such as the swing and waltz. Many requests bands played the popular American songs, but new songs were also made, and were a good bit more popular. Noted by Penn in an interview with a member of an requests band, “The first hour we play nothing but American music and nobody dancing. Then we take off with Los Laurels, El Abandoned Rancher, everybody starts dancing. ” These songs are examples of requests dances such as Daemon, Bolero, Rumba, and Accuracy.

In the ass and ass, requests is said to have fused with American Jazz and rock. Penn again notes, “The old fashioned requests disappeared soon after the advent of the Mexican-American Generation. They were replaced by the surging, modern-style requests, which were capable not only of keeping alive the Mexican-Americans’ musical roots, but also of catering to the new generation’s more modern and Americanizes outlook. ” In the sass and ass, a man named Bet Villa (the father of the Mexican-American requests) mixed the Tex-Mix Polka style with American swing ND foxtrot, creating a very new version of requests music.

In the ass and ass, Little Joe Hernandez and his family became a very popular requests band. Compare and contrast the three styles in terms of form, lyrics, instrumentation and performance practice. Corridor (Ballad) The term Corridor described a type of song that was often very racially focused, telling a story about the prejudice that the Mexican-Americans were facing (this was especially true after World War II). The song El Corridor De Joaquin Merriest told a story about a thief that they often referred to as the “Mexican Robin Hood. Another song, El Corridor De Kiwanis detailed a cattle drive by Americans that was going very poorly.

Thirty American cattle drivers were failing to control the 500 cattle, but then five Mexicans showed up and had the cattle rounded up in 15 minutes. There were also Caracas that told a story about the composer’s feelings or thoughts. They were often written in Strophic form based on copal, which had 4 lines, 8 syllables per line, and rhymed every 2nd and 4th line. They used to be sung a capable, but are now Mendoza who sang and played a 12-string guitar. She had over 200 songs to her name. Corridor were usually sung in any manner that befit the passing of a story, like while traveling, around a campfire, or Just at home.

Lyrics were passed orally and this often lead to words being changed over the years. * Very racially focused (social protest gains prejudice) * Strophic Form * Caracas (songs about the composer’s feeling, thoughts, and ideas) * Told a story * Based on copal (4 lines, 8 syllables, 2&4 rhyme) * Sung A Capable, now some include guitar * El Corridor De Kiwanis (Cattle Drivers failed, Mexicans succeed) * El Corridor De Joaquin Merriest (Mexican Robin Hood) Lydia Mendoza, singer and 12 string guitar (200+ songs) * Performance Practice: Passed orally, often changing words, sang while traveling, at home, etc.

Requests music was used in upper-class parties or balls. Unlike other techno music, it was not passed down by ear. Since this was the upper class, sheet music was used to pass down the songs. * Upper class dance music * Started with violin * Added brass, percussion, big band instruments * Incorporated waltz, swing, etc * Lea said there was no “form Compare and contrast the religious traditions of Afro Cuban Sanitaria and African American Christian slaves on southern plantations The Santa is the largest Afro-Cuban religion, and is the Cuban mix of Your spirituality with Roman Catholicism.

The first thing I noticed was different between the Afro Cuban Sanitaria and African American slaves was the role of race. This undoubtedly played a big role in their religion as well. In Cuba, it is said that race was not an issue as it was in America. Since religion was so often used by slaves as a way to stay optimistic about their situation, this was a clear difference. Another difference was the worship of Orisons, which the Cubans believed to be a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of God.

In a way, this can be compared too Saint in the Catholic Church. The Goddess of Love and Fertility in Afro-Cuban worship was called Shun. It was said that this was one of the first Orisons that an outsider would discover. As African American slaves were not allowed to use drums with their songs, the Afro-Cubans would use Bat drums that are said to hold an indwelling deity named Ana. These were drums sacred to their religion, and used for unreels, initiations, and other important ceremonies.

Contrasting from regular sacraments of the Christian faith, the Afro-Cubans had an event called the Toque De Santos. It is an anniversary of initiation to honor the spirits. There is singing and dancing accompanied by the Bat drums. This ceremony would create an altered state of consciousness that they believed to be involved with spirit possession. This altered state of spirit possession was also present with African American Christian slaves. Trace the evolution and development of the Steel Band. Trace the evolution and development of the Calypso.