This essay will address both the homogeneous and hybrid aspects of hip-hop, arguing that true hip-hop must contain an element of localization. As authenticity underpins the very notion of hip-hop. II: Homogeneities v. S. Habitations Homogeneities in the context of hip-hop refers to artists around the globe subscribing to a global popular culture in their music, names and dress fashion in a process sometimes termed “Americanization” (Omni, 2006).
Thus, In this Interpretation of hip-hop It Is not regarded as unique, but rather as simply producing American culture In other parts of the world, and furthermore an example of cultural imperialism (Dennis, 2006). In contrast, Habitations refers to the “creative adaptation and strategic innovation” (Dennis, 2006, p. 271) of traditional hip-hop, to better reflect and preserve aspects of a particular culture. This upholds the idea that “hip-hop is a life-style rather than simply a musical genre” (Omni, 2006, p. 03), meaning that hip-hop reflects local concerns and values rather than being globally uniform. In essence, hyperinflation In the context of hip-hop Involves he melding of the global trends (such as the fashion and aspects of the music), with local issues so as to speak to the people (Motley & Henderson, 2008). Ill: Hip- hop: origins Hip-hop’s origins are believed to date back to the late sass’s, where the music was used as a form of self-expression by those in deprived New York neighborhoods (Anthropomorphous & School, 2003).
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Since then the genre has grown substantially, with more than 50 million hip-hop fans In the united States and 100 million people worldwide consuming some form of hip-hop (Motley &: Henderson. 2008). Thus, his rapid expansion has put into question the uniqueness of hip-hop, with some unsure about whether the genre is truly inventive or just another form of Americanization (Moony, 2006). ‘V: Americanization Within society, there is a growing concern with the Idea of ‘Americanization’ as more and more of the world’s youth turn to hip-hop (Dennis, 2006). ‘The rampant proliferation of U. S. IP-hop and rap, and Its subsequent acceptance and appropriation as cultural forms of expression in Colombia, signal an increase in mass-mediated, transnational cultural contact in great part due to new technological advances in communication systems that facilitate the exportation of U. S. Popular culture” (Dennis, 2006, p. 279). Thus, these “technological advances” could be in reference to not only the expansion of music over the radio, but perhaps more Although MET is probably considered by most western youth as of concern only to those of the western world, in Africa alone MET has at least 100 channels (Omni, 2006).
This effectively highlights the significant influence of American music over the world. A further issue to explore in relation to homogeneities is the widespread lobar use of American English (Anthropomorphous & School, 2003). An example of American English is effectively exemplified by U. S. Negro artist ‘Snoop Dog in his song For all my Inning & Bitched. Here, Snoop utilizes words such as “Amiga”, “motherhood’s”, “bitched” and “sit” whilst describing “gangster” life which appears to encompass sex, violence, drug use and male supremacy.
This kind of American English is not unique to the U. S. Being furthermore found in European rap. More than 60 percent of German, French and Italian songs studied have English elements and draw on U. S. IP-hop slang by including words such as “pitch, “blunt” Anoint), and “sit” in their lyrics (Anthropomorphous & School, 2003, p. 473). This was also observed by Clarke & Hassock (2009) as they studied a white Canadian rap group called “Gazebo Unit”.
Findings indicated that there was a general absence of vernacular local linguistic features; instead favoring American-like pronunciations whilst also referring to drug use, sex and violence against women. V: Habitations: same, same… But different Whilst it is noted that there are honeymooning aspects and examples of hip-hop cross the globe, true hip-hop must contain an element of localization as authenticity underpins the very notion of the genre (Motley & Henderson, 2008). While the core essence and elements of hip-hop are shared by all members of the hip-hop culture, the aesthetic is adapted to suit multiple national cultures, localized conditions and grievances” (Motley & Henderson, 2008, p. 248). Anthropomorphous & School (2003) outline how the formation of new cultural territory involves undergoing three main phases. The starting point is De-territoriality’s, which is the extraction of cultural pattern from its original social context (p. 467).
The middle phase involves cultural melding and mediation through three cultural interactions: transfiguration, Habitations, and indigestion. Transfiguration is described as “a process in which cultural forms literally move through time and space where they interact with other cultural forms, influence each other, and produce new forms” (Industriously ; School, 2003, p. 467). Habitations follows, whereby new and familiar cultural forms mix together; finally resulting in indigested music. Thus, the final endpoint is re-territoriality’s as there is an integration of this new cultural pattern into society.
Thus, Mitchell (2003) article titled “Doing’ damage in my native language” addresses this issue of De-territoriality’s, describing how marginalia groups of a population utilize resistance vernaculars in order to express their situation. Mitchell draws on Potter’s affirmation that African-American rappers deform the language of the dominant class and look more “towards the language and consciousness of the ghetto in search of a more authentically black identity’ (Mitchell, 2003, p. 3). Hence, hip-hop can be understood as giving a voice to the voiceless and is predominantly utilizes by marginal’s groups (Motley ; Henderson, 2008).
This idea can be noted in the music of Maori group “Upper Hut Posse”, as they draw on the global elements of hip-hop and effectively combine them Dean Happen (D word) affirms this, stating “although I love and respect hip-hop, being Maori I only take from it what doesn’t compromise my own culture. But in spite of this I have found them both very compatible” (Mitchell, 2003, p. 13). Thus, the group imbibe the use of the traditional Maori instruments, raga inclinations, funk bass rhythms and hardcore-giants-style rapping to create their music (Mitchell, 2003).
One of the focal concerns of their music is the inequality that the Maori people experience, having a strong musical, political and cultural resonance in Tearoom (New Zealand). Upper Hut Posse are an excellent example of the Habitations of hip-hop as they are truly unique, with the misogynistic, derogatory aspects of hip-hop completely absent from their music as the well as the fact that they also rap in their dative language (as well as English) (Mitchell, 2003).
A further example that effectively illustrates how hip-hop is thoroughly hybridism is from white Australian group “Hilltop Hoods”. The group raps about personal struggles and frustrations, such as dropping out of school, coming from a low socio-economic status and domestic abuse. 1. 1 . Extract: The Hard road by Hilltop Hoods I spent my youth like life was cheap, The only change that I wanted was enough to buy a drink, Was on a path to nowhere, the harder the road, The more broken baggage we carry the larger the load,
This school drop-out got knocked out, chased by the cops out, Got clout, dumped by my girlfriend and locked out, Been broke and beaten, even chocked at being, A dope ms but never lost hope in dreaming, We used to thrash boosted cars till the engine would fail, If I never had bailed maybe I’d be dead or in Jail, And man I got no one else to blame, I thank my family and music for keeping me sane, But that’s the breaks right? Started working late nights, Never seeing daylight, getting paid like a slave might, And Vive done too many years to miss this for my missus, To have to tell my son he nearly never existed.
A key point to make when observing this group is that whilst hip-hop origins are with African-Americans, white people may still express their inequality through hip-hop. Once again, the derogatory aspects of hip-hop are absent from this group and the vernacular follows Australian rather than American English. Thus, these examples effectively illustrate that although artists are influenced and inspired by African American origins, hip-hop is extremely malleable and is adapted to speak to people from multiple national cultures and localized socioeconomic and political conditions Motley ; Henderson, 2008).