This paper investigates the relationship of chromium (Cry) mobility in soil with respect to pH performance using an electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted on kaolin, which prepared as a fully saturated soil sample spiked with chromium (Cry) In pompom concentration. A total of four different tests was conducted, and each of the tests is divided equally into two sample preparation. A DC power supply is used to achieve electric field strength of 5 V/CM and V/CM. The total duration of tests is six hours and the result as taken and recorded at every one hour.
The pH value of the soil significantly affects the mobility of heavy metal ions. The mobility of chromium (Ill) In the soil using the electrochemical method was achieved by considering changes of pH values during experimental works. The pH values are slightly Increased at the Initial experiment, but then started to decrease after four hours for sample preparation 1 and after three hours for sample preparation 2. The results showed that the increased experimental time induced a higher mobility of chromium in soil due to the changes in pH value. Key Words: chromium (Cry), electrochemical method, electrolysis process, mobility, pH value 1.
For instance, it’s may enter the human body through food, water, air, or absorption through the skin when they come in contact with humans. With increasing of heavy metal contamination in the soil environment due to various human and natural activities, further contaminants will be affecting the ecosystems. Chromium is one type of heavy metals that usually contribute to the contaminated soil besides others such as lead, iron, zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, arsenic, and uranium. There are elements, which can be harmful to people, animals and plants.
Moreover, the effects of this contamination are often poorly understood because lack of knowledge about these hazards among people. This phenomenon may lead an increase of various problems to the unhealthy ecosystem. Therefore, there is a need to gain better understanding the behavior of chromium as well as the other heavy metals which may be risk associated with any contaminated sites. Electrochemical in soil is the moving of substance by applying an electric potential across the soil.
This research will assess a basic electrochemical process as a attention method used to move chromium through the soil and then extract it from the soil or concentrate it in small volume soil, which can be more easily and economically to deal it. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship of chromium mobility in soil with respect to pH performance. It is hoped that these experiments will help to produce a proper extraction technique in order to reduce the number of soil contaminated sites, also provide further insight into electrochemical phenomena and the behavior of chromium in soil. . LITERATURE REVIEW Migration of contaminants into non – contaminants sites as dust or lactate through the soil is the example of events that contribute towards contamination of our ecosystem. The migration of heavy metals contaminants may lead to increase the area of contaminated soils. Mobility of heavy metal, in particular, soil environment is an important factor assessing the risk posed by that site. Generally, the migration of the contaminants should be in a soluble form.
If it not in a soluble, it needs to be desorbed, dissolved, or socialized into the pore solution before it can be adequately transported from the soil. The mobility of contaminants shows the process of migration of the contaminants (Reedy et al. , 1997). Several studies have been done on the extraction of heavy metal from be use for remediation at the contaminated sites. Stewart and West (1996) were done an investigation on the enhancement of electromagnetic remediation for arsenic (As) contaminated soils.
In that study, Stewart and West (1996) founded that arsenic is typically immobile in agricultural soil, hence accumulates in the upper soil horizons. Thus, the regression analysis of pH, organic matter content, clay content, iron oxide intent, aluminum oxide content, and action exchange capacity versus arsenic (As) mobility was used in order to determine how each parameter affected the arsenic (As) mobility in soil (Stewart and West, 1996). It was founded that iron oxide content is the only soil characteristic significantly positively correlated with arsenic (As) mobility.
In addition, Darned and Inspire (1997), have noticed that arsenic mobility is more dependent on liking exchange mechanisms, particularly with iron oxides than the pH-dependent dissolution precipitation reactions that regulate the movement of most other metals in the soil. Darned and Inspire (1997) found that arsenate (Sass) transport through sand containing free iron oxides was very slow at pH 4. 5 and 6. 5, and significantly more rapid at pH 8. 5. It was suggested that liming soil to increase the pH and promote metal precipitation to decrease metal mobility, may actually facilitate the movement of As (Darned and Inspire, 1997).