The ‘alee of heavy metal-accumulating plants to remediation has been recently realized. Irish capability is useful in removing toxic heavy metals and trace elements from contaminated soils and waters in a process referred to as phototypesetting. Several terrestrial plants that have been identified in the last two decades as highly effective absorbing and accumulating various toxic trace elements are being evaluated for their role in the phototypesetting of soils polluted with trace elements. Contamination of soil with lead has occurred on a global scale.
Exposure to lead may cause adverse effects to human health and the environment. It is therefore desirable to obtain a quantitative estimate of the potential risk of lead contamination. Numerous studies have been conducted collecting lead concentration data from both natural and contaminated soil on a range of scales. Very few of these studies have made serious attempts to spatially describe the data. In order to identify intimidated land and to enable development of appropriate environmental guidelines, it is essential to have an understanding of the universal range of lead concentrations.
Such data also assists in assessing any potential risk to the environment or human health. I . 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Heavy metal contamination is a common problem in many places, and this affects not only the development of cities but also the lives of the people, due to its harmful implications. For instance, if ever the aquifers are contaminated and the Neater is distributed to the people, it will most certainly affect their health as well as heir livelihood. At present, phototypesetting, a biological methods of separation in treating heavy metal contaminated soil.
This study explored the possibility of using Dwarf Santa (Koori cocaine) as a phototypesetting agent. The Dwarf Santa is a popular cultivated ornamental shrub. It flowers all year and requires little care. It grows from a half meter to four meters in height. It can be grown as a hedge and sometimes as a bonsai. The plant grows in practically any type of soil, but will thrive other Asian countries. The Dwarf Santa is grown under full sunlight, which induces its year-round flowering. It is used in landscaping in open areas, exposed to bright light.
Although its is only used as an ornamental plant Dwarf Santa contains chemical compounds which chalet heavy metals, which is the tannins :www. Antidisestablishmentarianism . Com/dwarf_Santa). Tannins are proven to absorb heavy metals (Humanity, et. Al. ,2003). Lead is the most commonly and usually encountered heavy metal pollutant. Lead usually ends up in water and soil through corrosion of leaded pipelines. Works such as construction, smelting, and radiator repair are some of the occupations which put the worker at greatest risk of lead exposure. I .
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using Dwarf Santa (koori cocaine) as a phototypesetting agent on Lead (II) contaminated soil. Specifically, it aims to investigate: 1. The measurement of lead in both the soil and the plants to test the ability of the plant as a phototypesetting agent. 2. Capability of Dwarf Santa in reducing the concentration of lead in soil in thirty days. I . 3 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION This study aims to examine the possibility of Dwarf Santa as a cleaning agent for lead – contaminated soil. Only the effect of the following variables is investigated:
Measurements of the lead in both soil and the plants, to test the ability of the plant to serve as a phototypesetting agent and capability of Dwarf Santa in reducing the concentration of lead in soil for thirty days. I . 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Heavy metal contamination on soil is becoming a usual problem in many places, specifically lead ions, and this affects the development of the cities as well as the health and livelihood of the people. For instance, if ever the aquifers are contaminated and water is distributed to the people, it will most certainly affect their health as well as their livelihood.
Two possible sources of contaminated soil are leaded gasoline and industrial operations like smelters. While gasoline is generally the soil next to roadways up to one-quarter of a mile from the road. Lead is present in soil from multiple environmental sources. There is some lead present in all soil, but not in levels that are harmful or toxic to children. Lead concentration is increased beyond safe levels in areas where there is lead mining, construction, a focus on agriculture, or heavy traffic. Lead mining and smelting releases lead particles into the air which then settles as dust in the soil.
Areas of construction are also generally high n lead soil content because of lead released from equipment and during demolition of old houses. Farming acts as a source of lead in soil primarily through fertilizer that contains lead and lime. Waste disposal can also contribute to increased lead levels in these areas. In areas of high traffic lead from gasoline that is pumped into the air settles as dust on soil and pollutes the ground. Lead poisoning is a major health risk, especially for children and infants. Along with water, food, and paint; soil is one of the leading sources of lead exposure.
This study aims to investigate for an alternative mechanical means of cleaning lead (which commonly encountered heavy metal pollutant) contaminated soil. Using Dwarf Santa (koori cocaine) as a phototypesetting agent can be a promising strategy to solve the problem on Lead (II) contaminated soil with less or no harm to the environment and to the people. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. 1 Dwarf Santa (koori cocaine) Dwarf Santa is one of the oldest known flowering plants in the Philippines. The genus Koori has roughly over 420 to 450 species.
A plant which is widely distributed in the country as well in other Asian countries. Dwarf Santa is native to India and Sir Lankan (Griffith,1994). It is planted worldwide in tropical and subtropical climates Logier,1997). It is widespread in the Indian sub-continent, China, Indochina, the Malay peninsula and the Philippines. Dwarf Santa (koori cocaine) a popular cultivated ornamental shrub. A plant which belongs to the family of Rubricate, the other scientific name is Koori grandiose Kerr; It is internationally known as the Jungle Geranium, Flame of the Woods and Jungle Flame.
The other names are Santa pula for tagging, tangoing for Bissau, Jungle flame (Engle. And Dwarf Santa (Engle. ). Ornamental plant is an erect and smooth shrub, growing to a height of 2 to 3 meters. Leaves are stalk less or on very short stalks, oblong, 5 to 9 CM long, heart-shaped or round at the base and blunt at the tip. Flowers are many, pink or red, and borne in terminal, stalk less or shortly stalked hairy comes. Corolla tube is slender, 2. 5 CM long; lobes are spreading and oblong, about half the length of the tube. Fruit is reddish, almost round, about 5 mm diameter.
Its constituents and properties; the roots contains an aromatic acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids. Leaves yield flavors embalmer and quarantine, procrastination’s and phenol acids and ferrule acids. Flowers contain cyanide and affiliation, and a coloring material related to quarantine. Considered internally sedative, stomach, tonic, antiseptic, colleague ad cultivation. (www. philippinemedicalplants. Com/dwarf_Santa). Dwarf Santa flowers throughout the year requires little care in full sunlight and light shade (Whistler ,2000).
The flowers are visited by butterflies (Collins ,2001), and birds eat the fruits. The plant grows in practically any type of soil, but will thrive best n rich sandy loam. It is used in landscaping in open areas, exposed to bright light. Dwarf Santa grows well in full sun and light to moderate shade. Dwarf Santa is cold sensitive and will partially defoliate after chilling (Michael et. Al. ,1999). Frosts Nil kill it to the ground, but it recovers afterward (Tropical,2001). It competes well Ninth shrubs and herbs but not with dense grass. Little is known about environmental conditions in its native range.
The species prefers slightly acid soils with good fertility and becomes sclerotic under alkaline conditions. It tolerates mild salt spray Watkins et. Al. ,1975). There is a trend towards producing newer variety of Dwarf Santa. The Dwarf Santa is the ideal plant for low maintenance landscaping. They can be planted along roadside or any public space as they don’t need to much attention. They are very affordable. (http://www. Media. Com/products/dwarf_Santa/ paper. HTML) Although it is only used as an ornamental plant Dwarf Santa contains Chemical compounds which chalet heavy metals, which are the tannins.
Tannins are proven to absorb heavy metals (Humanity et. Al, 2003) 2. 2 Phototypesetting Phototypesetting describes the treatment of environmental problems remediation) through the use of plants which mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere. Phototypesetting consists in mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils, water or air with plants able to contain, degrade or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants, from the media that contain them.
Phototypesetting may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Examples where hydrogenation has been used successfully include the restoration of abandoned metal-mine workings, reducing the impact of sites where Pubs have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of on-going coal mine discharges. (Ate, 2005) Phototypesetting refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyper accumulators to fasciculation, degrade or render harmless contaminants in soils, Neater or air.
Contaminants such as metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, have been mitigated in phototypesetting projects worldwide. Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pensioners and pigged have proven to be successful at hyperventilating contaminants at toxic waste sites. Disruptive technology, as opposed to mechanical cleanup methods such as soil excavation or pumping polluted groundwater. Over the past twenty years, this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic.
However, one major disadvantage of phototypesetting is that it requires a long-term commitment as the process is dependent on plant growth, tolerance to toxicity and fasciculation capacity. Www. Partners. Com) 2. 3 Lead Lead (BP) is a naturally occurring element that poses environmental hazards when present at elevated concentration. It is being released into the environment because of industrial uses and from the combustion of fossil fuels. Hence, BP is ubiquitous throughout global ecosystems. The existence of potentially harmful concentrations of b in the environment must be given full attention.
Emissions from vehicles are major source of environmental contamination by BP. Thus, it becomes imperative that concentrations of BP and other hazardous materials in the environment not only n the Philippines, but elsewhere in the world be adequately examined in order that development of regulations and standards to minimize risk associated with these materials in urban areas is continued. Lead is the most commonly encountered heavy metal pollutant. Lead usually ends up in water and soil through corrosion of lead pipelines. Lead in soil can come from the air or from erosion of lead-bearing rocks, and may be carried indoors as dust.
Lead dust can also be generate within the home , especially older homes that used lead-based paints or lead solder (http://www. HCI. Go. Ca/Hal-vs./iii-vs./ environ/lead-aplomb-Eng,pH). Occupations such as construction working, smelting, and radiator repair are some of the occupations which put the worker at greatest risk of lead exposure. Lead is a main-group element with symbol BP Latin: plumb) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to dull grayish color when exposed to air.
Lead has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, lets and shot, weights, and is part of solder, pewter, fusible alloys. And radiation shielding. Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements, although the next higher element, bismuth, has a half-life that is so long (much longer than the age of the universe) that it can be considered stable. Its four stable isotopes have 82 protons; a “magic number” in the nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei.
Lead is poisonous substance to animals and humans. It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders. Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals. Like he element mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotic that accumulates both in soft tissues and the bones. Lead poisoning has been documented from ancient Rome, ancient Greece, and ancient China. There are studies conducted in the Levels of lead in urban soils from selected cities in a central on the extent of BP contamination of soils in urban cities in central region of Philippines Island.
They have conclude that Only one (San Juan in Site 4) of the thirty sampling sites recorded a BP concentration beyond the WHO (World Health Organization) permissible limit of 100 MGM keg (-1). San Juan in Site 4 had a BP incineration of less than 250 MGM keg (-1). On the average, elevated BP concentration Nas evident in the soil samples from San Fernando, Along, Mammals, Baling, and Cabanas. The average soil BP concentrations in these cities exceeded the maximum estimated natural soil BP concentration of 25 MGM keg(-l).
Average soil BP concentration in Site 1 (16. 8 MGM keg(-l) was well within the estimated natural concentration range of 5 to 25 MGM keg(-l). Data gathered from the study areas showed that elevated levels of BP in soil were due primarily to vehicular emissions and partly to igneous activity. (www. Environ Sic Pollute Rest Into. Com). Another study Nas conducted about the exposure of preschoolers to lead in the Magmata area of Metro Manila, the Philippines. A study was conducted in the Magmata area of Metro Manila, the Philippines.
The lead concentration was measured in residential playground soils, food, water, and hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometer and the data were used to draw conclusions. All of the playground soils were contaminated with lead levels ranging from a minimum of 34. 54 micro/g to a maximum of 283. 13 micro/g in comparison to the naturally occurring lead level of 1 5 micro/g in soils. Further, the study conducted a lead analysis on the hair of the duty population to determine the accumulated lead intake. Ingestion of 25 MGM/day of soil contributed to 4% of the total lead intake per day by children exposed to the study sites.
Food (83%) was found to be the major source of lead compared to other sources. (Environ Rest. ) 2. 4 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer In analytical chemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. The technique can be used to analyze the concentration of over seventy different metals in a solution. Although atomic absorption spectroscopy dates to the nineteenth century, the modern form was largely developed during the asses by a team of Australian chemists. Www. Wisped. Com/ CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of Dwarf Santa as a cleaning agent for lead contaminated soil. Measurements of lead in both the soil and plants were made to test the ability of the plant to serve as a phototypesetting agent. 3. 1 Collection and Preparation of Samples A maximum of 12 Dwarf Santa of the same ages were cut into 6 inches respectively. There is 1 required amount of Dwarf Santa were planted in each containers. 3. 2 Application of Treatments
This study utilized an experimental design using three levels of lead Twelve cylindrical containers filled with approximately 600 grams of humus soil taken from the same source. Appropriate concentrations of lead nitrate solutions were poured into the different setups. Setup A had the lowest amount of lead, while setup C had the highest amount of lead concentration. Dwarf Santa of the same age Newer planted on different containers. The plants were watered with 40 ml. Of distilled Neater with the same amount every day and allowed to grow for 30 days. After 30 days, the plants were removed from the pot and soil samples were collected. 3 Spectral Analysis of the Sample These specimens were submitted for analysis of lead concentrations using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AS). The different parts of the plants in each setup Newer also examined for lead using the same method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER 4 In Table 1, it can be seen that there was a decrease in the concentration of lead after exposure to dwarf Santa for thirty days. This only shows that the plant, indeed, has a phototypesetting effect. It can also be noticed that as the levels of lead increase, the percentage of absorbed lead also increased.