Swarm Kyoto for his contribution in stimulating suggestions, comments and encouragement to help us to coordinate this research study especially in writing this report. Without his help, this report entitled Production Process of Very Large Crude Carrier (BLOC) cannot be completed. Furthermore, we would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation to the staff of Premenstrual Sultanas Zanzibar, who gave fully assistant and necessary materials to complete this task. Special thanks go to our team mate members who give their fully ointment and efforts in achieving the goal in this research.
Last but not least, many thanks go to friends who give an excellent cooperation and supported us to complete this research study. ABSTRACT Malachite very large crude oil carriers (Blocs; crude oil tankers with deadweight of over 200,000 metric tons) are required to comply with a new set of Common Structural Rules (Cars). They must also have the maximum cargo tank capacity and deadweight, while meeting the principal dimensions restrictions required sailing through the Strait of Malice, including overall length, breadth, draught, and gross tonnage.
This study is carried out to makes an attempt to know about the detailed information of BLOC. Besides, this study also conducted to view the production process of the BLOC starting from design process until delivery to the ship owner. Detailed process in the construction of this ship is discussed and analyze in this report. The method used to collect information about this report is mainly from the internet source, books, journal and article. From this study, we get to know about the rules and regulation applied in the construction of Blocs hull and tanker arrangements.
The tanker has its specialized forms for carriage of crude oil, refined oil products, liquefied gases and many more. And lastly but not least, the passenger vessel and it examples are cruise liner and some ferries. In this report, we are focusing on tanker; more precisely is Very Large Crude Carrier (BLOC) or known as Malachite BLOC. In general, tanker is used to carry bulk liquid cargoes. Many other liquids are carried in tanker such as chemicals, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and many more, and based on the special constructed vessel.
The characteristic of tanker has cargo-carrying section that split into individual tanks by longitudinal and transverse bulkheads. The cargo is discharged by cargo pumps fitted in one or more pump rooms either at the end of tanks and sometimes in the middle. Each tank has its own suction arrangement which connects to the pumps and a network of piping discharges the cargo to the deck from where it is pumped ashore. The ballast tank is used for balancing the tanker when fill or emptying the tanks where the operation was held.
The accommodation and the machinery spaces are located at stern part of the tankers. BLOC can accommodate capacities over 250,000 AWT. This ship can transport 2,000,000 barrels (320,000 mm) of oil/318 000 metric tons. 1. 1 Purposes of this Study This study makes an attempt to know the information about crude oil airier which in this case, focusing on Very Large Crude Carrier (BLOC). The study also covering about the production process of BLOC. The process such as design, assembly, outfitting, sea trial and launching are all analyze and discuss into detail information. . Significance of the Study Despite most of people know crude oil tanker, they do not know in detail about the construction process and other detailed information about the oil tanker especially BLOC. This stud’s research will help to increase others information about VI-C also the regulation applied related to the production Of ship. 1. Classes of crude oil tanker Crude oil tanker divided into several classes based on their size. Basically the classes are Panama, Fairfax, Suez-Max, LLC and lastly BLOC which is will be focusing on in this report.
Panama is the largest size crude oil tanker that can travel through the Panama Canal which is up to 70000 AWT. Fairfax is the crude oil tanker which uses the Average Freight Rate Assessment method to calculate the cost of transportation which is 70000 to 120000 AWT. Assumes is the largest crude oil tanker that can travel through the Suez Canal while loaded with 120000 to 200000 AWT. The main focus whish is Very Large Crude Carrier (BLOC) or known as Malachite because it is the largest size crude Oil carrier that can sail through Strait Of Malice. Figure 1: Size comparison of crude oil carrier (Source from: people. Foster. Deed) 1. Basic dimensions of VI_C Minimum Average Maximum Engel (feet) 1037 1091 1092 Beam (feet) 184 193 196 Draft (feet) 62 71 74 AWT 258,096 300,1 18 31 9,430 Capacity (barrels) 1 , 920,000 2,221 ,oho CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Story Early 1850, oil industry start to develop bathe beginning of oil export from upper Burma, then a British colony. This exploitation started by James Young manufacture of paraffin. The oil was moved in earthenware vessels to the river bank where it was then poured into boat holds for transportation to Britain.
In 1 sass, Pennsylvania oil fields became a major supplier of oil, therefore many transportation occur. Break-bulk boats and barges were originally used to transport Pennsylvania oil but the problem occur with the container used which is wooden barrels. First is with the weight which the barrel itself represent 20% of the total weight, other problems is the expense, their tendency to leak and the one time use only. The early design was in 1863 on England’s River Tone which was two sail- driven tankers. These were followed in 1 873 by the first oil-tanker steamer, the Fatherland which was built by Palmer Shipbuilding and Iron Company.
In 1871, the Pennsylvania oil fields were making limited use of oil tank barges and cylindrical railroad tank-cars similar to those in use today. Moreover due to the end of the second World War, the growth of in size of ocean-going vessel which the average AWT increase from 1500 tones to about 12,000 tones. In the modern era from 1877 to 1885, modern oil tanker were developed. Ludwig Nobel was a pioneer in the development of early oil tanker which his first experimented with carrying oil in bulk on single-hulled barges.
Primary concern was to keep the cargo fume away from the engine room to avoid fire and also other challenges included allowing for the cargo to expand and contract due to temperature changes, and providing a method to ventilate the tanks. The first oil tanker to be success was the Zoroaster which carried its 242 long tons of kerosene cargo in two iron tanks joined by pipes. One tank was forward of amidships and other was aft. The ship had a length overall of 1 84 et (56 m), a beam of 27 feet (8. 2 m), and a draft of 9 feet (2. 7 m). In 1883, British engineer Colonel Henry F. Swan designed a set of three Nobel Tankers instead of one or t’. o large holds,Swan’s design used several holds which spanned the width, or beam, of the ship. These holds were further subdivided into port and starboard sections by a longitudinal bulkhead. This design had stability problems which caused by the free surface effect in the early designs, but by dividing the ship’s storage space into smaller tanks help in eliminated this effect. This approach almost universal today which commonly used in signing tankers. The idea designed by Swan was adapted and alter into more efficient way, it was the best practices to create the prototype for all subsequent vessels of the type.
Gel;cuff was first dedicated steam-driven ocean-going tanker in the world and was the first ship in which oil could be pumped directly into the vessel hull instead of being loaded in barrels or drums. It also first tanker with a horizontal bulkhead, featured with valve operative from the deck, cargo main piping, a vapor line, cofferdams for added safety, and the ability to fill a ballast tank with seawater when empty of cargo. Until 1 956, tankers were designed to be able to navigate the Suez Canal. Due to Suez Crisis of 1 956, size restriction became much less of a priority after the closing of the canal.
Therefore, the bigger the tanker the more the efficiency of transport. More large tanker were built to fulfill this concept. In 19955 the world’s largest supertanker was 30,708 GRIT and 47,500 LAT AWT, the AS Sports Anarchic launched that year by Vickers Armstrong Shipbuilders Ltd. In 1 958, CSS shipping magnate Daniel K. Ludwig broke the record of 1 00,000 long tons of heavy displacement. Lastly, the world ‘s largest supertanker was built in 979 at the Pompom shipyard by Summit’s Heavy Industries, Ltd. As the Seesaws Giant. This ship was built with a capacity of 564,763 AWT, a length overall of 458. 5 meters (1 ,504. 1 Ft) and a draft of 24. 61 1 meters (80. 74 Ft). It had 46 tanks, 31 ,541 square meters (339,500 sq Ft) of deck, and at her full load draft, could not navigate the English Channel. 2. 1 Outline of Malachite BLOC When transporting crude oil, the tanker sail about 6500 miles (about 12000km) from Persian Gulf; the world largest supplier of oil resources to the Far East region including Japan through the Strait of Malice to the East China Sea. Strait Malice, which is located between Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is the hardest part of the route.
The Strait of Malice is about 900 km long and 70 to 250 km wide with the average 25 m of water depth. Because it is very refer and some of the places with shallow water, together with the narrow and shallow watercourse with few kilometers wide; these are difficult for large ship to pass through. Malachite BLOC is a new name given to the largest tanker that can still safely sail through the Strait of Malice. Over the time, this largest tanker has increased due to improvement in the accuracy Of water depth measurement. In the past, BLOC only limited to 250000 metric tones,.
However, the latest Blocs are almost 300000 metric tones. Figure 2: Markers Nautilus; Malachite BLOC type (Source from: www. Backtrackers. Com) 2. The Regulatory Process The rules and regulations applied in design and construction Of Oil tankers are primarily developed by the IMO and the classification societies. IMO is an agency of the United Nations, charged with developing a regulatory framework that promotes maritime safety and environmental protection. Most of Imp’s regulations related to tanker design and construction are included in the SOLAR and MARMOT.
IMO focus on the arrangement and outfitting of the vessel as it pertains to safety and environmental performance. This regulation establishes performance standards for structural integrity in the intact and damage condition over the design life of the vessel, and outlines the process for auditing the rules of organizations compliance with the goal-based standards. Classification societies develop technical rules and guides for the design and construction of ship, perform plan review to confirm that the design is in conformance with their rules, and survey vessels during construction and trials.