Scientific Revolution Aristotle and Claudia Ptolemy 16th century science was based on their conclusions Geocentric model: Earth is motion less other planets revolve around it Epicycles- Polymers idea circles within circles Crystalline spheres: heavens are made of a weightless substance allowing them to move Medieval thinkers used Aristotle and Ptolemy ideology into a Christian framework Thomas Aquinas uses Unmoved Mover concept to confirm G-ad’s existence Medieval thinkers believed their hypothesis but were unsure as to why the earth was in the center, salvation can only OCCUr on earth so g-d placed it there-?one train of thought Mathematics and science became the answers to solving Earth’s mysteries Nicolas Copernicus (1473- 1543) Heliocentric model: sun in center, circular (epicycle) orbit around On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres: theory published 1543 Critics disagree stating it is UN-Christian and illogical Disagreed with their theology main leaders against it: martin Luther, john Calvin 1 ; If corp.. Correct church and bible are wrong new direction of thinking this is only a theory, does not have mathematical tools to prove this idea Itchy Brave (1546- 1601)

Danish astronomer Does not have a telescope but has a lab and finds very precise data 1572- discovers new star 1577- discovers comet Johannes Keeper (1571- 1630) Assistant to TUB New Astronomy (1609) Laws of Planetary Motion 1: elliptical orbits 2: speed of planet in larger orbit is slower – speed of planet in smaller orbit faster 3: farther from the sun slower orbit Keepers law provide the foundations of Newton’s Laws of Gravity Galileo Galilee (1564- 1642) First to use the telescope: support for heliocentric theory Bible unreliable source Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World (1632) – index of prohibited kooks: -earth rotates on an axis and earth revolves around the sun Condemned by Catholic Church-?house arrest Pendulum, principles of inertia. Covers objects of different weight fall at the same speed By the middles of the 1 7th century, the new science becomes an increasingly Protestant and northern Europe phenomenon Argued that nature was cold, rational, mathematical and mechanistic Laid foundation for the modern study of mechanics-?foundation for Newton Isaac Newton (1642- 1727) Universe is mathematical, empirical, practical, no miracles Calculus, concept of gravity, gravitational pull Keepers 3 Laws of Planetary Motion becomes Newton’s Laws of Motion Inertia, acceleration, for every action that is an equal and opposite reaction Principia Mathematical (1687) mixture of science and math -Universal gravitation: planets and star move b/c of gravity, gravity: why planets move in an orderly rather than chaotic sass every scientist looked up to Newton Cornelius Itchy Brave Johannes Keeper (mathematics) Newt.

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Collectively “shatter” geocentric theory Natural Philosophy (Modern Science) Attempt to understand the workings of nature and the structure of the universe Scientific Revolution: reaches its culmination with Newton and his endings Biology, Chemistry, and Medicine: greater advances in physics and astronomy in 16 and 17 Andrea Versatile: The Structure of the Body (1543), dissection learning about anatomy William Harry: blood circulation (1628) Robert Bayle: father of modern chemistry, distinction between chemical elements, compounds, and reactions. Scientific Reasoning and Logic/ Philosophy Responds to science Scientists and philosophers see universe as a governed universal laws that can be seen, and discovered with rational inquiry and experiment Francis Bacon (1561- 1626) Lord Chancellor of England “l will put a new route to intellectual discovery’

Just because an idea has been around for a while does not make it valid Knowing: secured by experience and data Nova Organza (New Method): what we can know is limited to what we can run experiments on Causes of Human Error: Idols of the Tribe, Idols of the Cave, Idols of the Marketplace, Idols of the Theatre Table of discovery: Experiments Lucifer: uncover info about the globe Experiments fructified: experiments that prove things wrong Inductive reasoning to find conclusions Small pieces of experiments and drawing larger conclusions from them If on observes enough apples falling from a tree can conclude apples fall, not tideway’s Build up data to build up logical conclusion-? inductive reasoning Human Philosophy psychology building blocks Rene Descartes (1596- 1650) Founder of modern philosophy Rationalism/ philosophy of the mind: understanding world based on reason Discourse on Method most famous (1636) and Meditation on First Philosophy (1636) The Dread Argument/ Deceiving G-d Argument/ Evil Demon Argument: all he knows is false and could be false If we can’t trust our senses to convey true information about the world around us then we can’t trust the conclusions we’ve made on the grounds of that sense perception Thought recess: sensory data is false my mind is real “l think therefore I am” -?> G-d is then also real and He’s not tricking us about the World -?> sensory data is not false, use math and reason to find truth Truth is in the mind a human is a rest cogitations (thinking thing) not an rest extents (extended thing) Cartesian Dualism: idea of reality “cogitator ergo sum” (l think therefore I am”) G- d original cogitator himself, allows clear thinking Best way to understand physical World is through math and reason Deductive reasoning: logic and reason to find the truth The modern Scientific Method Induction (Francis Bacon- inductive) Empiricism

Deduction (Desecrate deductive m) Rationalism Moving from the specific to the general Begins with the general and ends with the specific Carol’s Linnaeus: classified plants and animals by gees and species William Gilbert: electrical charges in substances Ben Franklin: Identified electricity in lightning an invented lighting rod Alexandra Vote: storage battery, harness electricity due to battery New Science Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge, London 166 French Academy of science, 1 666 Berlin Academy/ Prussian Academy of Science, Berlin 17 The Enlightenment The Enlightenment (1700- 1800) Deism: G-d as divine watchmaker does not get involved (most distant) John Tolland Christianity Not Mysterious -coined term deism Pantheism: G-d is everything (everything is the same) and everything is G-d (more extreme) Monism: everything is unified by a single substance Branch sipping (1632- 1677) Ethics: disprove Descartes Dualism (mind is separate from matter) Substance: is a substance (inner being or essence) Modes: beings and everything ( expression) No good and evil, only perspective State of Nature: anarchy or constant state of war fear of chaotic Social Contract: agreement made to maintain social order and peace Thomas

Hobbes (1588- 1679) Pessimistic believed individuals are bad Leviathan: 1651 advocates absolutism, move away from what the fear and towards desires Fundamental desire is survive Likes absolutism Dislikes Anarchy Man must pick ruled: absolutism (only right gobo) and security free: anarchy and fear Bad and lack a master Give up power to leviathan so he can protect us John Locke (1632- 1 704) Optimistic Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Theory of Tabular Rasa -blank slate -knowledge from experiences -environment effects human behavior -society progresses with education Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690) In state of nature Pl. Are equal and good Social contract-Pl. Arm government protects natural rights (liberty property happiness) Rebellion: violation of rights Constitutional government is supported Biases Pascal (1623- 1662) Reunite science with religion Mystical experiences enables Pascal’s Wager: better to believe then not to, gain you gain all, loose you loose nothing Pennies (Thoughts) Witch Craft!!! 70,000- 10,000 women sentenced women older, widows 80% elderly 1700 end of witch craze traditional beliefs and fears result in witch panics and craze Voltaire (François Marie Route) (1694- 177) Constitutional monarchy > French absolutism teeters on the English: contrasted English political liberty and intellectual independence with Frances “tyranny and bondage” Letters are the first sparks in the French Revolution Enlightened Despotism: guest at Potsdam in court of Frederick the Great, form Of absolutism , looses favor with him and is exiled from Prussia.