For example: This band could be the next Battles. Those who know The Battles, considered by most to be the greatest band in rock history, might be persuaded to listen to this band. ) 6. Ambiguity: an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. 7. Analogy : A comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of the more simple. For example (and from the film Forrest Gum ): Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you’re going to get. 8. Anaphora: repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.
This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the rite’s point more coherent. Think Martin Luther Kings “l Have a Dream” speech. 9. Anecdote : A short, entertaining story used for effect. Most such stories contain a moral or a message supporting the speaker or writer’s persuasive intent. 10. Annotation: explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data. 1 1 . Antecedent: the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers. 12. Antithesis: the presentation of two contrasting images written with parallel structure. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, Or paragraphs. TO be or not to be… ” It was the best of times;it was the worst of times… ” “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country 13. Appeal to Authority : Using a perceived figure of authority or interest for the purpose of strengthening an argument. For example: Consider all the television ads that have a person dressed up in a doctor’s outfit endorsing a product. Also, note how popular celebrities are used to pitch products. 14. Appeal to Pity : a fallacy in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting her or his opponent’s feelings of pity or guilt.
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The appeal to pity is a pacific kind of appeal to emotion. 15. Argument: A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer. 16. Argumentation: The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. 17. Argument Ad Bacterium: Fallacy that occurs when threat of force is made, either implicitly or explicitly. Example: “I’m willing to discuss this in even more depth, but if you don’t come around soon, there may be dire consequences. (Vacuum from the Latin means “stick”. ) 8. Argument Ad Populous This fallacy occurs when an argument panders to popular passion or sentiment. When, for instance, a politician exclaims in a debate that his opponent “is out of step with the beliefs of everyone in the audience,” he/she is committing the fallacy. The legitimacy of a statement depends not on its popularity, but on its truth credentials. 19. Assonance: Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity. 20. Assonated: Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words.
The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted;in addition, the use f commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z. 21 . Attitude: the relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience. 22. Authority: Arguments that draw on recognized experts or persons with highly relevant experience. 23. Backing: Support or evidence for a claim in an argument. 24. Balance: a situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences or paragraphs or sections of a longer work. 5. Begging the Question : A fallacy of logical argument in which a person assumes something to be rue that is either questionable, debatable, or false. For example: In arguing against the death penalty, one might claim that is morally wrong to kill another person. However, those who take the opposite view would disagree with this claim. To write persuasively, one can’t base an argument on a debated point–it Will not convince anyone who fundamentally disagrees. Often called circular reasoning, _ occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim. 6. Cacophony: harsh and discordant sounds in a line or passage in a literary word. 27. Causal Relationship: writer asserts that one thing results from another. To show how one thing produces or brings about another is often relevant in establishing a logical argument. 28. Schism’s: Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea. 29. Colloquial: the use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Huckleberry Finn is written in a _ style. 30.
Comic Relief: the inclusion of a humorous character or scene to contrast with the tragic elements of a work, thereby intensifying the next tragic event. Character: hose who carry out the action of the plot in literature. Major, minor, static, and dynamic are the types. 31 . Conflict: a clash between opposing forces in a literary work, such as man vs.. Man;man vs.. Nature;man vs.. God;man vs.. Self. 32. Connotation: the interpretive level or a word based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning. 33. Consonance: Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity. 4. Cumulative: Sentence which begins with the main idea and then expands on that idea with a series of details or other particulars. 35. Damning with False Praise The intentional use of a positive statement that has a negative impact. Think sarcasm: That’s an interesting new hairstyle! Or, “Your attempts are admirable if thoroughly unsuccessful. ” 36. Deconstruction: a critical approach that debunks single definitions of meaning based on the instability Of language. It “is not a dismantling of a structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. ” 37.
Deduction : A form of reasoning that begins with a generalization and then reasons down to a specific conclusion in light of specific facts;the process of moving from a general rule to a specific example. See syllogism. MS. Smith 38. Denotation: the literal or dictionary meaning Of a word 39. Description: The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses. 40. Dialect: the recreation of regional spoken language, such as a Southern one.
Hurst uses this in Their Eyes Were Watching God 41 . Diction: the author’s choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning 42. Didactic: writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. A and focuses on moral or ethical concerns. 43. Digression work is usually formal : A temporary departure from the main subject in speaking or writing. Digressions may be inadvertent but usually aren’t. When asked a difficult question, a politician might intentionally go off on a tangent. He’ll talk for a while but never actually get around to answering the query. (“That’s an interesting question, it reminds me of a time when I. 4. Dramatic Irony: In this type of irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or a piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the ark 45. Dismisses : The use of a word or phrase that is more severe or offensive than the situation or matter truly entails (the opposite of euphemism). People use dismisses when they want something to appear worse than it truly is. 46. Either – presenting only two alternatives when in fact more exist. 47. Either-or reasoning: When the writer reduces an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives. 8. Ellipsis: Indicated by a series of three periods, the _ indicates that some material has been omitted from a given text. 49. Epigraph: The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two. One of them is “You are all a lost generation i’ by Gertrude Stein. 50. Equivocation: When a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument. 51 . Teeth cal Appeal: When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. 52.
Ethos, or Trust : Changing the minds of others by instilling a sense of trust, or credibility, in the speaker, such that others believe in and value his or her opinions. 3. Euphemism: a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. “He went to his final reward” is a common _ for “he died. ” They are also used to obscure the reality of the situation. 54. Euphony: the pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work. 55. Example: an individual instance taken to be representative of a general pattern 56.
Explication: The act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text. _ usually involves close reading and special attention to figurative language. 57. Exposition: The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. 58. False Dilemma : A fallacy of logical argument which is committed when too few of the available alternatives are considered, and all but one is assessed and deemed impossible or unacceptable. 59.
Figurative Language: Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid. 60. Figure of Speech: A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Examples are hyperbole, irony, metaphor, simile, synecdoche, understatement, etc. 61. Genre: The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. 62. Hasty Generalization The habit of arriving at a bold conclusion based on a limited sample of evidence. This often occurs with statistics.
For instance, someone may ask ten women and one man what their opinion is of contemporary male-female relationships and from this sample draw a sweeping conclusion;hasty generalization would then be said to exist. 63. Homily: This term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any errors talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice. 64. Hyperbole: a figure Of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. 65. Imagery: The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions.
On a physical level, _ uses terms related to the five senses;we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory. For example, a rose may present visual _ while also representing the color in a woman’s cheeks. 66. Induction : A form of reasoning which works from a body of facts to a general conclusion. Scientific knowledge is usually drawn through induction. The ancients observed the movement of the stars and planets for centuries, finally drawing from known facts formulas that explained the laws and movements of celestial bodies. 67. Infer: To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. 8. Invective: an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language. 69. Irony : A contrast between what appears to be and what really is. Irony is often used to build or develop interest in a subject–or to show that people are mistaken in what they believe. 0. Logos, or Reason : Changing the minds of others through rational, or reasonable, arguments. 71. Metaphor: a direct comparison between dissimilar things. “Your eyes are stars” is an example. 72. Metonymy: Metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
For example: a news release that claim “The White House declared” rather than “The President declared” 73. Mood: This term has two distinct technical meanings in English writing. The first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker’s attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. 74. Narrative Device: This term describes the tools Of the storyteller, such as ordering events to that they build to climatic movement or withholding information until a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing in creates a desired effect. 5. Narrative: The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events. 76. Non Sequitur : A fallacy that occurs when one statement does not logically follow from what preceded it. 77. Onomatopoeia: a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of rods. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum. 78. Oxymoron: From the Greek for “pointedly foolish,” is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms. Simple examples include “jumbo shrimp” and “cruel kindness. ” 79. Parable : A short story from which a lesson may be drawn.
Related to anecdote. Most parables are ancient tales. 80. Paradox : A statement which seems self-contradictory but which may in fact be true. In other words, something that appears to be false is actually true, or something that appears to be true is actually false. Remember that arguments are used o change opinions. One might frame the entire argument as a paradox, suggesting that what some in the audience think to be true is not. 81 . Parallelism: refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. 82.
Parody: A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule. 83. Pathos, or Emotion : Changing the minds of others through emotional appeals, such as that of fear, pity, sorrow, or anger. 84. Pedantic: An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish. 85. Periodic Sentence: A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety. 86.
Personification: The assigning of human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts. An example: Wordsmith ‘s “these that bares her bosom to the moon. ” 87. Point of View: In literature, the perspective from which a Story is told. 88. Post Hoc, Ergo Porter Hoc (“after this, therefore because of this”) This might also be described as the causality fallacy: Event follows from Event x, so one automatically concludes that caused . (A young man walks by a neighbor’s house and sees a cat scurrying away;he looks up and sees a giant hole in the window. The hole, he infers, must have been caused by the cat, who fell through the pane.
The inference is hasty, because the hole might have been caused by any number of things a baseball that missed a friend’s glove and flew over his head;young brothers fighting inside and accidentally smashing the window, etc. ). 89. Prose: One of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech. 90. Red Herring An attempt to divert attention from the crux of an argument by introduction of anecdote, irrelevant detail, subsidiary facts, tangential references, and the like. 1 Repetition: The duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern. 92. Rhetoric: from the Greek for “orator,” this term describes the principle governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively. 3. Rhetorical Modes: The flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. 94. Rhetorical Question : A question asked for effect to emphasize a point. No answer is expected.
For example: Do you want drunk drivers roaming the roads at night putting the lives of your family and friends in peril? 95. Sarcasm: from the Greek meaning ‘”to tear flesh,” involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device. 96. Satire: A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and invention for reform or ridicule. Satire mocks an opponent and/or his position. The purpose of the ridicule is not for laughs but to change the minds Of readers and listeners. Satire differs from parody. Ardor is mimicry for laughs only. Satire is ridicule with persuasive intent. Regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform humans or their society, _ is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing. The effect of _, often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. 97. Semantics: The branch of linguistics that studies that meaning of words, their historical ND psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another. 98. Situational Irony: a type of irony in which events turn out the opposite of what was expected. 9. Slippery Slope: a change in procedure, law, or action, will result in adverse consequences. (e. G. , If we allow doctor assisted suicide, then eventually the government will control how we die. ) It does not necessarily follow that just because we make changes that a slippery slope will occur. 100. Straw Man A fallacy that occurs when someone attacks a less defensible position than the one actually being put forth. This occurs very often in politics, when one seeks to derive maximum approval for himself/herself or for a cause.
Example: “Opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement amounts to nothing but opposition to free trade. ” (Someone can believe in free and open trade and yet still oppose NONFAT. ) 101 . Stream-of-Consciousness: This is a narrative technique that places the reader in the mind and thought process of the narrator, no matter how random and spontaneous that may be. 102. Style: an evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, hanta, figurative language, and other literary devices. 103.