Process – is the operation of data as per given instruction It is totally internal recess of the computer system. Output – it is the processed data given by computer fate data processing. Output is also called RESULT. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use Storage computers can save data so that it can be used At another time. Data and which it roses id s, add Data is a Mum can In ND FAA ACTS Informant us In It of d STASIS motion in lay Ge inning. Tic History of Computer ABACUS Also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool used primarily in Parts of Asia for performing arithmetic processes.
The Abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: he 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands. Nipper’s Bones Nipper’s bone was invented by John Napier (1550-1617), a Scottish mathematician and scientist. Nappies bone was multiplication tables written on strips of wood or bones. The invention was used for multiplying, dividing, and taking square roots and cube roots. Slide Rule William Ought made the first slide rule by inscribing logarithms on wood or ivory. Before the invention of the pocket or handheld calculator, the slide rule was a popular tool for calculations.
The SE of slide rules continued until about 1 974, after which electronic calculators became popular. Passerine ( First Mechanical calculator) Invented by the French Mathematician named Blaine Pascal (1642) first called Arithmetic Machine, Pascal’s Calculator and later Passerine. It can add and subtract long columns of numbers without making a mistake. Leibniz its Calculator Invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz a German Mathematician (1 805), this Machine can add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers and it could also find the square roots of numbers. Jacquard Weaving Loom Another Frenchman named
Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented weaving loom (1805). It follows instruction from the Punch cards that are fed to the loom to create patterns Non cloth-and Analytical Engine Difference Charles Babbage designed “Difference Engine” in 1822. An English Mathematician named Charles Babbage invented this machine (1883). To build the analytical engine, thousands of tiny parts had to be made perfectly. At that time , no machine could create parts so small and exact. Because of that , analytical engine was never built. But because of Charles Babbage idea, he became known as “Father of the Modern
Computer”. A decade later, Lady Augusta Dad Byron presented the idea that Punch cards could be used to instruct Baggage’s engine to perform certain repetitive instructions. So because of this, she was popularly known as the “First Programmer”. Hellebore’s Punch Cards The government created a contest to find the best solution to the problem. In 1890 it was won by a census agent named William Hollering. In his design, each census form was encoded into a punch card. Machine called ‘tabulators” could rapidly process stacks of these cards. Generations of Computers Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)
Transistors (1956-1963) Integrated Circuits (1964-1971) I Microprocessor (1971) Artificial Intelligence (Present and Beyond) antes and Disadvantages of Using Comps ADVANTAGES CLC speed 0 Reliability CLC Consistency L] Storage C] Communications DISADVANTAGES Categories of Computers 1. Personal Computers -? A personal computer is a computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself. Desktop Computers -? is designed so that the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table. Mobile Computer and Mobile devices – A mobile computer is a personal computer you can carry from place to place. Similarly, a mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand. ; Notebook Computers – also called a laptop computer, is a portable, personal computer often designed to fit on your lap. Notebook computers are thin and lightweight, yet can be as powerful as the average desktop computer. ; Tablet PC’s – Resembling a letter-sized slate, the Tablet PC, or tablet computer, is a special type of notebook computer you can interact with by couching the screen with your finger or a digital pen. Smart Phone and Pads – is an Internet-enabled phone that also provides personal information management functions such as calendar, an appointment book, an address book, a calculator, and a notepad. ; E-Book Readers – An e-book reader (short for electronic book reader), or e- reader, is a handheld device that is used primarily of reading e-books. ; Portable Media Players – A portable media player is a mobile device on which you can store, organize, and play digital media. 3. Game Consoles – a mobile computing device designed for ingle and multilayer video games.
Standard game consoles use handheld controller(s) as an input device; a television as an output device; and hard disks, optical disks, and/or memory cards for storage. 4. Servers – a server controls access to the hardware, software, and Other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. Servers support from two to several thousand connected computers at the same time. People used personal computers or terminals to access data, information, and programs on a server. A terminal is a vice with a monitor, keyboard, and memory. . Mainframes – A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously. Mainframes store huge amounts of data, instructions, and information. Most major corporations use mainframes for business activities. With mainframes, enterprises are able to bill millions of customers, prepare payroll for thousands of employees, and manage thousands of items in inventory. One study reported that mainframes process more than 83 percent of transactions around the world. 6.
Supercomputers – A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer and the most expensive. The fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than one quadrillion instruction in a single second. Applications requiring complex, sophisticated mathematical calculations use super computers. Largesse simulations and applications in medicine, aerospace, automotive design, online banking, weather forecasting, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration use a us prompter. 7. Embedded Computers – An embedded computer is a special purpose computer that functions as a impotent in a larger product.
A variety of every day products contain embedded computers. 17 The Components of a Computer [l System Unit -?The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard. C] Input Devices – An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer. Five widely used input devices are the keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, and web cam.
C] Output Devices – An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. Three commonly used output devices are a printer, a monitor, and speakers. Storage Devices – Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use. C] Communication Devices – A communications device is a hardware component that enables the computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices. A widely used communications device is a modem. Introduction To Computer