In 1 926 entered Munich University and gained a P. . D in Political economics. BMW: You have recently released you memoir, “My Forty Years as a Diplomat”, about career. What inspired you to write this book? Fend: After my retirement in 1973 from my career in the Foreign Ministry in China, reflected upon what I had achieved in my life. Forty years is a long time, and I wanted to write about the historical events that occurred during my career, as well as my personal struggles. BMW: What do you think the biggest personal struggle was during your career?

Fend: was the Chinese consul-general in Vienna from 1938-1940, because I was fluent in German. This was during the Holocaust, and many Jews wanted to immigrate to a safe country. No one would grant them visas to escape. Chin lie, the Chinese ambassador in Berlin, told me not to give the Jews visas because he wished to be friendly to Germany. I struggled to choose between listening to my senior and doing what I believed to be right and risking my career. In the end, listened to my heart. I defied Chin lie’s orders and gave Visas for Shanghai, China to any Jew who asked. Called it a “liberal” visa policy.

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BMW: You put your whole career and life at stake in order to save as many Jews as you could. Why did you do this? Fend: Because the Jews had no other way to escape. You did not need a visa to get into China, but a visa was the only way for a Jew to get out of Germany and escape concentration camps and the Holocaust. As I said before, no other country would give visas. I felt a natural compassion and want to help these people by giving them a way to escape. I was in a position where I could aid people, and I chose to do so. God didn’t bless me with such a high ranking position for no reason.

He gifted me so I could benefit and help others, which in this case was the Jews. It is estimated that I saved two thousand Jews. This makes me proud, that I helped people. BMW: Tell me about what the Chinese Government accused you of. Fend: I have been denied a pension because the Government has accused me of spending about USED 300 of embassy money. This is not true, and I believe that the motive for this lie is because I received a “demerit” in my file for issuing visas to Jews. The Government wished to discredit me, and has done BMW: Well, thank you for your time Fend.

No wonder you are described as having a “compassionate head’. Fend: Thank you. Part B “Resistance does not necessarily involve violence but it always involves hooch. ” With reference to the above statement, explain the methods used by Jews to resist Nazi policies and practices during the Holocaust (1939 -? 1945) The Holocaust was the systematic genocide of Jews and other undesirables by the Nazis in German-occupied areas of Europe. Some Nazi practices were forcing Jews to live in concentration camps or ghettos, as well as murdering them in numerous ways.

Policies included the Numerous Laws, which stripped the rights of Jews. Resistance against these activities did not necessarily involve violence; there were both violent and passive ways in which the Jews chose to resist Nazi policies and practices. Many Jewish people chose to use violent opposition as resistance to the actions Of the Germans. This was undertaken in both ghettos and concentration camps. In a number of ghettos, Jewish communities used violence resistance against Nazi activities. Source A is an account of Jewish defiance in the Warsaw ghetto against the Nazis 1 .

The Nazis wished to deport the Jews to Trebling extermination camp and liquidate the ghetto, and the source demonstrates the Jewish opposition to the genocide of their race. Resistance such as this happened in other Jewish ghettos, with communities manufacturing home-made weapons or smuggling them to revolt against the Germans. Some also escaped into forests to engage in partisan warfare against the Germans. Violent resistance in ghettos was a prominent way in which Jews demonstrated their opposition for the activities of the Nazis.

Violent resistance by the Jews against the German forces also occurred in concentration camps. At some concentration and extermination camps including Trebling extermination camp and Auschwitz, there were staged uprisings against the Nazis. This was in opposition to the Nazi practices of underfeeding, overworking, abusing and murdering Jews. In most cases, weapons were smuggled by Jews from munitions factories at camps, although grenades and arms were sometimes hand-made. The intention of these efforts Was to kill the Nazi guards and escape to freedom.

Many Jews were killed during these resistance efforts due to the superior weapons and numbers of the Germans. While the majority of the uprisings did not succeed, many led to loss of German life and the destruction to some parts of the camps. Notably, the October 1943 uprising at Sob¶r extermination camp forced the camp to close, saving many Jews. Violent uprisings at incineration camps were resistance to inhumane Nazi practices. Many Jews chose to resist Nazi procedures in passive methods. These involved contradicting policies which controlled the Jews food, religion and freedom of speech.

Other methods of resistance were hiding from the Germans, and educating Jewish children. Smuggling food in ghettos was a prominent way that Jews resisted Nazi oppression during the Holocaust. The Nazis believed that a ration of 1 80 grams of food a day could starve the Jewish population to death. The Jews resisted this attempt by acquiring food through foraging in bins and backyards or smuggling. Smuggling was mainly conducted by small children who slipped through the ghetto walls to find food. Some Jewish people worked outside ghettos in factories, and would smuggle food in their clothes, although many were caught.

The punishment for any unauthorized means of acquiring food was instant execution. The Nazis ineffectively tried to prevent this by surrounding ghettos with high walls, sometimes topped with glass spikes to prevent people from climbing over them. Despite obtaining extra food being illegal, many Jews did this as a non-violent defiance Of German authorities. In most ghettos, the Nazis banned religious activities. Prayer and ceremonies were conducted secretly in attics and bases while people stood watch. This was resistance against Nazi prohibitions that intended to dehumidifies the Jews.

Source B states that “Many Orthodox Jews who opposed the use of physical force viewed prayer and religious observances as the truest form of resistance. ” 2 This demonstrates the choice of many Jews to resist Nazi practices and maintain their spiritual and cultural identity. Punishment for this activity, if discovered, could involve beating or death for any participants. Practicing Judaism demonstrated refusal by the Jewish community to have heir spirits broken and submit to the German oppression. Continuing religious practices was a way in which the Jewish passively resisted the Nazi regime.

The documentation of life in ghettos was another method in which the Jewish community resisted the Nazi regime. Many ghettos formed groups which stored reports and diaries that chronicled living conditions in the ghettos. Some also preserved Nazi anti-Semitism decrees and posters, as well as anti- Nazi writings. The largest archive was “Ones Shabby”, or the Ringleader Archive, of Warsaw ghetto, which had over 25000 sheets saved. Source C epic’s historians going through the contents of the Ringleader archive upon its discovery.

It demonstrates the valuable insight that the Jews documentation provided on the restrictions imposed by the Nazis on the Jews. This was despite the Nazi’s efforts to annihilate the group from living memory. Through doing this, the Jewish community consciously attempted to preserve the history of their culture, and ordeals during the Holocaust. The rights of Jews were severely restricted by Nazi policies and practices. Many Jews chose to passively resist these conducts while confined in ghettos in German-occupied Europe. There were many ways in which the Jews chose to resist the activities of the Nazis during the Holocaust.