Therefore, despite their claim to have a totalistic protractor history, Annalists historians were counterrevolutionaries. In my opinion, it is only in Islamic paradigm for the study of civilization that one can find a holistic (taws. Kid)approach history. It is a pity that none of the leading historians interviewed by Gallagher in this study showed any appreciation Islamic epistemology. It is interesting observe leading Western scholars of Islam and Muslim world were openly convincingness they had boondoggling the Nonalcoholic’s approach to history. This school, as indicated above, was not administrable even for the study of

Westerncivilization. Nevertheless,in view of its unique methodology, the book is, in many ways, an important contribution to the Middle Eastern historiography. However, the editor can not be credited with creating this oral approach history. Before publication of this work, there were Lawrenceville similar works in the field. The mentionable study in this regard is Paths to the Middle East: Ten Scholarly Back edited by Thomas Naif. The book is useful for students, as the leading scholars of the Middle East have offered a lot of invaluable advice to students the Middle Eastern story.

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In addition, the book sheds some light on Orientation and on the lives of the leading orientations of the postwar War II era. The study is useful for students of history, historiography, orientation, and sociology. Accountability in Islam Accountability: A Comparatively offhand Irresponsibility’s Islam and Man-mediocrities, by SheikhOsmanAbdulKaderai-Sari, translated by Mohammedanism. Clangor,Magnesia: WEB Printer, 1992. Up. 103. ISBN 983-9668-18-8. Reviewer: Seed Surreal Islam, Department Political Science,lolls [1 04] INTELLECTUAL DISCOURSE

The question of “accountability” has for long been one of the major issues in politics and administration. In the Western literature. Two groups of theorists- the Marxist and the Liberals-have given basically contradictory opinions on this issue. However. Both groups of theorists have serious weaknesses which have led many others to think of alternative approaches to this concept. Sheikh Osama Abdullah AY-Safari’s Accountability: A Comparative Study of Human Responsibility Between Islam and Man-made Doctrines is one such attempt. As he points out, “Man-made citrines are driving mankind rapidly towards its doom.

This dire dilemma prompts thinking to find a solution.. -At this point of our discussion comes Islam to offer the really ideal solution… ” (p. 61). The book. Originally written in Arabic and translated into English by Muhammad Bawd. Consists of nine chapters and is divided into two parts. In the first part. The author examines major Western ideologies. Including Marxism, Liberalism. And Determinism. Sheikh Osama points out that while the Marxist “see man’s behavior as part and parcel of the movement of society. ” (p. L) the liberals” give sanctity to the individual rather than to society” (p. ). According to the Marxist. Individual freedom is limited by socio-economic and political conditions of a state. And “life is essentially of a dialectic nature. And it follows from this that man’s responsibility is part of this paradox and of the dialectics of society ” (p. 14). To the liberals, on the other hand, individuals have full freedom: “Individuals can behave the way they like and make their arrangements on conditions that their actions or arrangements do not contradict laws or regulations in force” (p. 47). After stating the main points of the Marxist. Liberals. ND Determinist. Sheikh Osama proceeds to examine their views. He points out that the Western approaches are man-made doctrines and have serious shortcomings. First, accountability in these approaches applies exclusively to the social and public aspects of man’s life, and does not concern itself with the individual’s private life. Secondly, these approaches are concerned only with man’s present earthly life and do not take into consideration life after death. Thirdly. CocoaJ;notability in these approaches is based on constitutional and general laws. Finally. In the Western models. Ethos have to be developed for implementing these laws. In the second part of the book. Sheikh Osama explains the Islamic point of view on accountability. In Islam. Tackle (accountability) includes “commands. Forbidden things as well as matters left to [1 05] choice. ” Accountability in Islam comprises main categories of ordinances: doctrinal and statutory. While the former is detailed in the Holy Curran, the tater is discussed the domain of fish (Islamic Jurisprudence). Let follows from this that individuals are liable to both doctrinal and practical duties. A Muslim,” the authors says, “should obey all commandments keep away from all he is forbidden to do and to worship God alone with no partners. ” Man has no choice in evading these duties. Thus, while in the “man-made doctrines,” philosophers and speculators ‘have to toil to prove their ideas and convince others often,” in Islam, this is not the case with God’s manslaughter the concept of responsibility is delineated by the Characteristic. The justification for responsibility, thus “commoners inside the messages Islam and not from outside as in the case with man- mediocrities. (P. 84)Len examining concept accountability, the author explains in detail also the conception al-had the (right path) and al-alai (wrong path). In the last chapter, Sheikh Osama makes several comments, the most important of which is that in Islam every individual is directly accountable Almighty Allah. Every individual is responsible for himself. In this world, accountability’s both collective anticipated, “on the day of comprehensibility’s is strictly individual” (p. 95). Thus, individual accountability goes beyond this life and extends to the hereafter.

Finally, the author concludes that while “the nature of responsibility in man- underestimates at organogenesis relationship betterment’s beings within the framework of material appearances [Islam] probes the depths of the human soul and takes into considerations origin, formation and its end, and looks after its needs in the light of its existence in the present life as well as in the hereafter. “(p. 99) Undoubtedly, this book is a product of SheikhOsman’spainstaking efforts. However, it suffers from conglomerations.

First, in examining both the Marxist and Liberal approaches to the concept of accountability it would have been better if the author had given the views of specific philosophers rather than talking in general terms. Secondly, ,. While discussing conception al-had and al-algal, the author could have brought other relevant concepts like Jamaica (consensus)and IL . Azans(motivation for perfection) which have direct bearing on making an individual accountable is duties. Thirdly, the book is full of repetitions.