Non-renewable Natural Resources: – Important things in the environment that do not come back naturally, for example ores and fossil fuels. Environmental Management: – ‘A purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of environmental resources affected by human activities’. Objectives of Environmental Studies: According to UNESCO (1971), the objectives of environmental studies are: (a) Creating the awareness about environmental problems among people. (b) Imparting basic knowledge about the environment and its allied problems. C) Developing an attitude of concern for the environment. D) Motivating public to participate in environment protection and environment improvement. (e) Acquiring skills to help the concerned individuals in identifying and solving environmental problems. (f) Striving to attain harmony with Nature. Need for managers to study Environment Management: In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems.
Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Ways of reducing active human impact are environment-friendly chemical engineering environmental resources management and environmental protection. Environmental Managers play major role in: i. Keeping track of hazardous materials and informing the public of possible harm to humans and the environment ii. Minimizing waste and preventing pollution iii. Identifying and minimizing environmental impacts from the organization’s activities iv.
Raising environmental and social responsibility awareness v. Establishing programs for sustainable resource use vi. Set up an information sharing system to assure institutional coordination ii. Prepare and release annual ‘sustainability reports SQ. Write short notes on ‘Environmental Audit’ & ‘Life Cycle Assessment’. Answer: – Sources: 1 . Http://YMMV. Sin. Org. UK/publications/on-Nine/advisories/45/45. HTML 2. Http://www. Environmentalist’s. Com. AU/what-is-an-environmental- audit. HTML 3. Http://en. Wisped. Rag/wick/Life-ices_assessment A] Environmental Audit: – Environmental Audit reflects various types of evaluations intended to identify the gaps be;en the environmental compliance and management system implementation and suggest the related corrective actions. Many types of audit have been carried out by companies: – 1] Compliance Audit: – The most common type of audit consisting of checks against environmental legislation and company policy; 2] Issues Audit: – An evaluation of how a company’s activities relate to an environmental issue or (e. G. Global pollution, energy use) or an evaluation of a specific issue (e. . Buildings, supplies) 3] Health and Safety Audit: – An assessment Of risks and contingency planning (sometimes merged with environmental auditing because of the interconnected impacts of industrial processes and hazards) 4] Site Audit: – An audit of a particular tit to examine actual or potential environmental problems 5] Corporate Audit: – An audit of the whole company and its polices, structures, procedures and practices 6] Due Diligence Audit: – An assessment of potential environmental and financial risks and liabilities carried out before a company merger or site acquisition or divestiture (e. . Contaminated land remediation costs) 7] Activity or Operational Audit: – An assessment of activities that may cross company departments or units (e. G. Energy or waste management) Stages in Audit: – 1] Pre-audit Stage: Full management commitment
Setting overall goals, objectives, scope and priorities Selecting a team to ensure objectivity and professional competence 2] Audit Stage: On-site audit, well defined and systematic using protocols or checklists Review of documents and records Review of policies Interviews Site inspection 3] Post- audit Stage: – Evaluation of findings Reporting with recommendations preparation Of an action plan Follow-up Benefits of Environmental Audit: Organizations understand how to meet their legal requirements Organizations can demonstrate they are environmentally responsible Organizations can demonstrate their environmental policy is implemented
Understanding environmental interactions of products, services & activities Knowing their environmental risks are managed appropriately understanding how to develop and implement an ISO 14001 MESS Improving environmental performance and saving money B] Life-Cycle Assessment: – It is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product’s life from cradle to grave (i. E. , from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling).
Goals & purpose: The goal of LLC is to identify all inputs and outputs of material flows used in reading products & services and assessing how these material flows impact the environment. This information is used to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. There are 2 main types of LLC: – 1] Attribution Alas: – They seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in time (typically the recent past). ] Consequential Alas: – They seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study 4 Main Phases of LLC: ] Goal & Scope: – The goal and scope document therefore includes technical details that guide subsequent work: – The functional unit, which defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can be related. Alternative goods or services can be compared and analyzed.
The system boundaries Any assumptions and limitations The impact categories chosen 2] Life Cycle Inventory: – It involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system. Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, ND raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. TO develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries.
The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain The data must be related to the functional unit defined in the goal and scope definition. Data can be presented in tables and some interpretations can be made already at this stage 3] Life Cycle Impact Assessment: – This phase is aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LLC flow results.
Classical life cycle impact assessment (ILIAC) consists of the following mandatory elements: – Selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; The classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; and Impact measurement, where the categorized LLC flows are characterized, using one f many possible ILIAC methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total. ] Interpretation: – It’s a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. The results from the last two phases are summarized during this phase. Interpretation phase should include: – Identification of significant issues based on the results of the LLC and ILIAC phases of an LLC Evaluation of the study considering completeness, insensitivity and consistency checks Conclusions, limitations and recommendations SQ. Ozone Layer: Its importance to our planet, harms of its depletion & ways in which it may be minimized.
Answer: – Sources: – 1 . Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Ozone_Rarer 2. Http://study. Com/academy/lesson/the-ozone-layer-importance-and-the- harmful-effects-of-thinning. HTML 3. Http://www. EPA. Gob/specula/science/ effects/index. HTML 4. Http://vow. Grenadier. Com/5-ways-prevent-ozone-depletion. HTML Ozone are: The ozone layer refers to a region of Earth’s stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun’s LLC radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone (03) relative to other parts of the atmosphere. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion Of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometers (12 to 19 mi) above Earth.
The ozone layer was discovered in 1 913 by the French physicists Charles Fairy and Henry Poisson. Ozone in the Earth ‘s stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (02), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken 02 to create ozone, 03. The ozone molecule is unstable (although, in the troposphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of 02 and an atom of atomic oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle.
Chemically, this can be described as: 02 + have -i 20 o + 02 0 03 Importance of Ozone Layer: The sun radiates large variety of radiations including ultraviolet radiations which are very harmful to the human body. LIVE radiation causes skin cancer and cataracts. IV radiation also affects the fertility of other animals, as well as the viability of their offspring. Plants are affected by IV radiation because it effects their ability to grow and develop correctly. The ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet radiation rays and prevents them from coming to the surface of the earth thus saving the human beings from harmful rays.
This ozone layer in the stratosphere is considered to be “good ozone. ” The ozone layer occurring naturally in the lower layers of the atmosphere helps remove the pollutants from the surface of the earth. Harms of Ozone Depletion: – The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts, including nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (NON), hydroxyl (OH), atomic chlorine (C’), and atomic bromine (BRB). But, the concentrations of chlorine and bromine have increased markedly in recent years due to the release of large quantities of man-made organelles compounds, especially chlorofluorocarbons (Cuffs) and burglarproofing.
This gives rise to ‘Ozone Holes’, which is nothing but an annual thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica, caused by stratospheric chlorine. It is unable to absorb the harmful Ultra-violet rays. IV radiation causes non-melanoma skin cancer and plays a major role in malignant melanoma development. In addition, IV has been linked to cataracts a clouding of the eye’s lens. Physiological and developmental processes of plants are affected by CIVIC radiation. It brings changes in plant form, distribution of nutrients within the plant, timing of developmental phases and secondary metabolism.
Ozone-depletion causes reduction in phytoplankton production which is the foundation of aquatic food webs. Also, it results in decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals. Increases in solar LIVE radiation could affect terrestrial and aquatic biochemical cycles, thus altering both sources and sinks Of greenhouse and chemically-important race gases e. G. , carbon dioxide (CO), carbon monoxide (CO), carbonyl sulfide (COOS) and possibly other gases, including ozone.
Synthetic polymers, naturally occurring polymers, as well as some other materials of commercial interest are adversely affected by solar IV radiation. Increased IV radiation accelerates their breakdown. Ways to reduce Ozone Layer depletion: – Reducing the use of private vehicles, the emissions from which create smog which depletes Ozone layer. Car pooling taking public transport, walking, using a bicycle, using vehicles having hybrid/electric zero emission engine will e the good alternatives. Usage of CEO-friendly and natural cleaning products (free of toxic chemicals) for household chores is a great way to prevent ozone depletion.
Pesticides may be an easy solution for getting rid of weed, but are harmful for the ozone layer. The best solution for this would be to try using natural remedies. A lot of rocket launches result in combustion by products that are ozone-destroying compounds. So, stringent regulation should be developed regarding this. Governments across the world should take a strong stand for banning the use of harmful compounds like Cuffs, Nitrous Oxide etc. o Save the ozone layer. SQ. Renewable Energy Innovations: Its need/importance. List its commercial advantages & 5 reasons of its limited/slow growth in India.
Answer: 1 . Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Renewable_energy 2. Http://remarkableness. Bloodspot. In/ADD 2/10/why-is-renewable-energy- important-for. HTML 3. Http://www. W. Seas. Ii/Renewable/ 4. Http:// www. Bridgetown. Com/blob/tag/renewable-purchase-obligations/ Renewable Energy: – Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tidal waves, geothermal heat and bio fuels that are grown and harvested without fossil fuels.
Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/ space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. Need/elementary of Renewable Energy Innovations: – Fossil fuels when burn, create harmful greenhouse gas emissions and our planet is already feeling the Impact of climate change. By using renewable energy instead of fossil fuels we would significantly decrease the current levels of greenhouse gas emissions, and this would have positive environmental impact for our entire planet.
Renewable energy can improve our energy security by reducing the need for foreign Oil import. The global Oil market has been characterized by extremely volatile prices and our dependence on oil continues to grow. By switching to renewable energy and using more domestic renewable energy sources, we would drastically improve our energy security and energy independence. Renewable energy offers variety of different options to choose from. What this means is that countries can choose between sun, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, water sources, etc, depending on the potential and availability of each of these sources.
Renewable energy can also give strong boost to our economy in form of new jobs. The number of people employed within the renewable energy industry is rapidly growing. Renewable energy can help in fight against poverty by playing part in electrification of many rural areas in developing world. In these rural areas renewable energy is much cheaper energy option to satisfy energy needs as compared to traditional energy solutions. Renewable energy can also help improve political ties between countries by haring tech analogical know-how.
Some large renewable energy projects could even be joined works of two or more different countries. Commercial Advantages of Renewable Energy Innovations: – A] Building Designs: New buildings should be designed with minimum energy use in mind. Renewable energy measures such as solar thermal / heat pumps / biomass boilers / stoves can then also be considered. Buildings designed to create a comfortable working environment with the min mum of artificial heating, cooling and lighting have lower energy costs and environmental impacts. B] Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps:
Ground source heat pumps are an ideal solution for heating and cooling in commercial buildings. These systems can collect energy through pipes buried just below the ground. Also, the running costs are lower. C] Solar Panels: Solar collectors can be particularly economical for space or water heating in large buildings. Photovoltaic (IV) panels, which convert solar energy directly into electricity, can be used for powering electric fencing or as a backup power where grid supplies are unreliable. D] Landfill Sites: ; mandrill sites continue to produce environmentally damaging and potentially gizzards methane emissions.
Collecting this gas for electricity production is a cheap, clean and highly successful renewable energy technology. E] Bio- fuels: Bio-fuels, derived from a variety of crops and wastes, can be blended with conventional vehicle fuels to produce a greener alternative. Using bio-fuels reduces CO emissions and the use of finite fossil fuels. F] Wind Turbines: Small wind turbines combined with battery storage can provide a solution to electricity supply problems for small communities and businesses. 5 Reasons of limited growth of Renewable Energy in India:-
Growth in the Indian solar sector has slowed down in 2013. The main reason for the slowdown is uncertainties and delays around policies. The new government wants to now push the solar market. India is an ideal market for renewable energy. It has got a vast potential for generating power from the sun, from wind, from small hydrophone and from biomass. But, Bureaucracy and a lack of dependable and transparent policies are holding back investments. Previously government used to provide 2 types of incentives i. E. ‘Accelerated Depreciation’ (AD) & ‘Generation-Based Incentive’ (GOBI).
AD would revive tax-benefits, whereas GOBI would provide incentives for every turbine installation. Both these incentives are withdrawn. Due to this, investors are not turning up. Bottlenecks caused by Indian’s weak grid system are another barrier to higher growth of renewable energy. Due to weak grid system, the generated electricity cannot be transmitted to the remote and deprived areas. Sluggish market dynamics, lack of holistic vision, absence of long term planning are the other reasons for slow growth of renewable energy in India.
Q 1) b) Carl Fredrick’s ideologies visa-a-visa environment & what major issues are dealt in the feature? Carl Frederickson, the protagonist of the movie, worked hard to fulfill his and his passed away wife’s dream of ‘having club house on the cliff facing paradise falls. He gets disturbed by the heavy arbitration around his house which also forces him to leave his place. He makes makeshift aircraft by using 1 0000 helium balloons which lifts his house. He takes his house toward paradise falls which suffers from thunderstorm; destroying few balloons, due to which, his floating house comes closer to hill surface but far away from falls.
He drags his house award falls; during this journey he comes across his childhood hero Mount who wanted to capture a bird. Mount uses dogs as slaves for capturing bird & controls them through electrical methods. Which shows humans can go to any levels for their wants and wishes. Carl throws all his belongings which he preserves as memories; so that he can fly his house for saving bird. He fights with Mount and saves bird; and helps injured bird to find her chi kicks leaving them safe in their natural habitat. Also accepts Dug as his own dog. He gives away his belongings, his house, wife memories to save bird and the environment there.