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Origins of the Modern World: Resurrection Resurrection refers the notion of viewing the world from a European perspective. It also refers to the tendency interpreting the histories and cultures Of non-European societies from Western or European perspective. Resurrection has affected the convectional narrative of world history in numerous ways. Resurrection views Europe as being the only active shaper of the world. This is a situation where Europe acts and the rest of the world responds. Resurrection also views that Europe has “agency’ and the rest of he world is passive.
Resurrection has changed the views of people to believe that Europe is the center, and the rest of the word is its periphery and Europeans alone are capable of initiating change. Critiques of the Traditional “Rise of the West” The idea behind the rise of the west shortly began after the Spanish conquest of the Americas, during the Italian renaissance of the sixteenth century. Firstly, Europeans attributed their superiority to their Christian religion. Later, they attributed their superiority to the Greek heritage of secular, rationalistic and scientific thought (Jack 6-7).
In the late asses, both the industrial revolution and French revolution of 1 789 reinforced the awareness in the Europeans minds that Europeans were different from the rest of the world and that Europeans were progressing rapidly while the rest of the world appeared to be stagnant. Since the industrial revolution of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was just beginning, the ideas of capitalist development viewed the west as being progressive and Asia as backward. This was showed when the pace of economic change accelerated in the nineteenth century in Europe, much of the Asia was in internal decline (Jack 12-15).
Analyst viewed the west as dynamic, forward-looking, progressive and free while Asia as stagnating, backward and despotic. The development of the Europeans was attributed to the rapid improvement Of all instruments Of product by the immensely facilitated means of communication and cheap prices. Some critics have said that the idea the west has some unique historical advantage, some special quality of race, culture or environment gave this human community a permanent superiority over all other communities.
Alternative Ways to Explain Modern History Historical contingency It implies that the way the world turned out is the only way possible. This narrative states that because of the historical advantage enjoyed by the Europeans since the fall of the Roman Empire or the European genetics, this interpretation implies that the rise of the West was inevitable. This can be seen though political, economic and military dominance. The economic engine driving global trade, which came with exchange of ideas, new food crops and manufactured goods, was in Asia.
Historical accident This explains that historical accidents happen. For example in agricultural societies, climate changes could have a major impact on the size of the harvest, not just in one year but also over decades. Conditions that are more favorable could produce larger harvests, lowering the price of food for everyone and stimulating the growth of the economy. Poor conditions, such as those that happened in most parts of the globe during the Seventeenth- century “Little Ice Age,” could put whole economies under severe pressure (Perspires & Dominique 32-4).
Although climate changes do indeed have causes, from the point of view human history, they are accidents in the dual sense of being unpredictable and beyond human control. Conjuncture A conjuncture occurs when numerous autonomous developments come gather in ways through interaction, creating a distinctive historical moment. This can be explained by considering the world as having had several regions that was independent of one another, for example, China’s decision to use silver as the basis for their monetary system had a global impact when Europeans discovered a huge supplies of silver in the new world and a larger demand by Chinese.
As a result, silver flowed into China as Asian silks and spices flowed into Europe and the new world, this inaugurated the first stage of globalization. Works Cited Jack A. Gladstone. The Rise of the West- or Not? A Revision to Socio-economic History. University of California, 2001 Perspires, Roy and Dominique Parrot. Ethnocentric Mad Alleviates Origins Of The Modern World History Essay The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative is a history book that have been written by Robert B. Marks.
This book explores new concepts and perspective of the history of the world. He talks about the historical changes that have happened in the period of 1400-1850. Marks said in his book ” a brief history of the origins of the modern world” (page), that is the purpose of his book, he is trying to represent the modern world history in 07 page. He leaves out too much of the human past to be able to call it the history of origins. He shows that how is Asian is the is the center prior of the asses not the standard Resurrection and it’s a polytechnic world in term of the world trade.
In the Origins, he focuses on the economic history where geographical on China, India and England. Introduction In the beginning of the book he starts with a summary of “Rise of the West” where he say ” the west as dynamic, forward looking, progressive, and free, and Asia as stagnating, backward, and despotic” (page). After that he started alluding up or narrating the historical events in five-chapters based on an his vision of the world history, and he does it in a way that makes the reader agree with him to get the main key of the historical concept such as conjuncture.
Also he takes about the most advanced societies across the Eurasian (China and England) and the MOO economic structures ( biological old regime and trading networks). He also takes the importance of the Indian ocean and he sees it as the “most important crossroads for global exchanges of goods, ideas, and culture” when Europe was ” a peripheral, marginal player ring desperately to gain access to the sources of wealth generated in Asia” (page 43) He brings a very good evidence that pictures the traditional China’s technological and Naval superiority, of the “well-developed market system” in Asia.
Also he showed he superior quality of the Indian cottons and the of British textile manufacturers to compete without government protection. He said “Asia produced about 80 percent of everything in the world. ” (page). In chapter 5, he argues that western dominance after the middle-1 sass resulted from historical contingencies and accident not from inherent superiority. He quoted Fernando Branded saying that the “gap between the west and the other continents appeared late in time” (page 24) . He shows how unpredictable factors such as China’s decision to ” remonstrate it’s economy using silver” in the 14th century.
And the availability of markets in the (accidentally discovered) new World combined on fuel western imperialism in the nineteenth century . Also the land scarcity that helped rising the steam power in England. He argues, was opium-which great Britain used consciously to impoverish India where it was civilized. And they used China as the market. Marks says” there is no more mystery in it that that… Those who have benefited should be humbled by the actual sources of the their good fortune, and those who have not should take heart that in the future new contingencies may well favor them” It is all a matter of contingency.
Summary of chapter 4 and 5 In Chapter 4 Marks talks about the industrial revolution. He explains the reason of “why the Industrial revolution outline occurred in Europe not in China or India”. He explains it as ” The dynamics of specialization, increased market exchange, and improved transportation in the context of the illogical old regime and the particularities of China’s situation was pushing it toward an increasingly labor-intensive agar-culture, rather than toward an industrial revolution” (package).
However, he believe that the industrial revolution occurred in Europe because coal and colonies. Also, he talks about India and how important it was around the 1 700, he said ” Indeed, India around 1700 was the largest exporter of cotton textiles in the world and supplied textiles not just to meet English demand, but throughout the world as well… And that India accounted for fully one quarter of the world manufacturing output in 1750. ” (up. 6-97). He also talk about the impact of the industrial revolution on Britain such as the Use of slave markets in Americas for cheap textiles.
Tea and silver are two important things that Marks mentioned in this chapter, he talked how important the silver was for the British to get tea from China. The Chinese recognized that they have a drug problem (Opium) because of the British they though the last amount of it into the sea and that was the reason behind the opium war. The British colonized Hong Kong and open the trade between China and the British. At the end of the chapter he talks about the use of use of iron and steam how id the British build gun boats to fight in the Asians rivers.
At the begging of the chapter 5 he talks about the how India and China were counted as more than half of the wealth in the word in the 10th century. India is major Opium producer and Cotton textile industry. The British set trade barriers to keep the Indian textiles out of the market. After that, the British East Indian Company gained the “right to collect the Indian textile from much as Bengal. ” this increased the company revenue. Also, this gave the company the power to have an army. Using this army they control throughout India by the sass.
This lead India to De industrialized. He also talk about the usage of the gun from the British to colonize Hong Kong and he talks how strong the British army got. The British forced China to make selling Opium legal. This industrialization level that the British reached mad other countries to compete with Britain such as; France, The united States, Germany, Russia and Japan. At the end of the chapter he talks about El Ion Famines, it’s when the drought started in Latin America, Asian and African. This lead to Famine and 50 million people have died.
This result a major distraction of the economy of hose countries which puts them back in initial biological old regime state. He give an example of the Britain using the Indian land to planet wheat and export it while the Indian are starving. He talks about Japan and the new regime (Meijer) era that have created, that regime give Japan the power to reach Britain level. Secondary document Marks argument about the industrial revolution is all about labor and materials where he defines it as coal and colonies. E said in his book ” for without coal and steam, cotton textiles alone could not transform the British economy ” what he is saying that without the coal and steam, cotton textiles British will never reach the Industrial revolution. He also said ” if there is any image that portrays industrial revolution ,it is that smokestack rising above factory”. He also agrees with Kenneth Pomeranian when he said ” the industrial revolution is that proceeded by finding land saving mechanism” . This is what Marks answer to the question “why the industrial revolution occurred first in England? . However there are some interpretation that disagree with marks and one of them is Varies who defines the industrial revolution as process of continuous technology changes that started in the 1 8th century and would eventually create a new type of economy based on new sources of energy, raw materials, and tools. Also, he said that the capitalism is the reason that the industrial revolution occurred first in England. He said “the capitalism was more advanced in Britain , and western Europe, than in China”.
According to Gladstone Europe didn’t rise because of religion or government or technology, Europe rose because of religion and government and technology. Gladstone point is “England was following a parallel pattern of political, demographic, commercial, urban, agricultural, and even industrial growth ‘ The history of Western imperialism could be traced back to the sixteenth centuries when Western powers such as the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British started their encroachment in Asia, until they basically controlled the economic activities there.
In order to maximize their gains, they began to impose harsh policies and exploit Asian countries’ market through unfair trade practices. Marks believe that imperialism is not the only thing that will reduce the gap. Oakum Shaman argument that the reducing of the gap in Japan was because of the sense of nationalism, they copied the techniques room the west, and good education which mad an imperialism and that what reduced the gap between China and Japan. Primary document Marks study is committed both to a polytechnic understanding of the world and a belief that gaps between rich and poor regions are not inevitable. Hat makes his argument weak that the standard Resurrection narratives are just as ideological, and he uses of materials is richer and more convincing because it takes all of the evidence seriously, that from Asia as well as that from Europe. Think Enlightenment is the reason behind that industrial revolution started in Europe not China or India because this intellectual movement started in Europe where the scientific method have been discovered and used. This lead to the invention of the steam engine (scientific revolution).
The steam engine was a replacement of natural resource (wind, water.. ) in Europe. This made the industry Field works efficient by inventing new machines that works without stopping. Without this knowledge Europe will not be the start point of the industrial revolution. According to Emmanuel Kant was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage. ” He pointed out that all analytic truths are necessary, hat is, they could not have been otherwise. If you agree that the definition of a bachelor is an unmarried man, then it stands to reason that all bachelors are unmarried.
Francis Bacon advocated the use of scientific method, and he explains it as the culmination of the move away from the authority and dogmatism of the mediaeval and the awakening of modernity. Conclusion In conclusion Marks attempt to discredit the rise Of the West to cultural superiority but instead to accidents, conjectures, and contingencies, does not give enough credit to Rupee’s ability to maximize its potential despite an inferior geographical position.