Obviously nouns children will take time to develop their skills and there Will be many errors along the way in their development. That is why it is important to know that child development is a complex range of aspects, factors and influences. As a Teaching Assistant you need to be able to support learning and development of all children as this is your main focus of your role. In order to deliver your support you need to be able to recognizes and name the main stages of child and young person development. When working as a Teaching Assistant you could support a whole group of kids, a class or support individuals.
Therefore accurate observations and assessments are necessary to enable you to understand all areas of pupil’s development. Although all children and young people are different and develop at own rate there are development charts created, that indicate specific ages to help teachers and teaching assistant to understand the basic patterns of children’s and young person’s development( Kane, 2010). Kane (2010) also states that the stages of development of O to 19 years for each age range, are divided into five different aspects: Social Physical Intellectual Communication Emotional and behavioral
And age ranges are as follow: O to 3 years 3 to 7 years 7 to 12 years 12 to 16 years 16 to 19 years Aspects of Development Social Development Social development determines how children relate socially and emotionally to other adults, teachers or their peers. Children need to learn how to deal appropriately with range of people, situations and emotions so in other words, develop their social skills. This process involves: Acceptable behavior patterns Self-control and discipline Independence, including self-help skills e. G. Feeding, toileting, dressing Positive relationships Understanding rights, feeling and needs of others
Moral concepts e. G. Understanding the difference between right and wrong. Physical Development As young children grow they go through changes in body shape and features from helpless baby to wobbly toddler to very active 4 year old. After the changes of early childhood, the next major change is puberty when kids become a mature females and mature males. As children grow, their bodies are affected by what they drink and eat as well as by their physical development and their abilities to perform different physical activities. These physical activities involve gross motor skills, fine motors skills and ordination.
Gross motor skills involve whole body movements. Examples of gross motor skills include: walking, running, climbing stairs, hopping, jumping, skipping cycling, and swimming, climbing play apparatus, playing football, basketball, hockey, rugby or tennis. Fine motor skills involve whole hand movement, wrist and fingers. Examples of fine motor skills include drawing, painting, writing, model-making, playing with wooden/plastic bricks, cutting with scissors, doing/undoing buttons, shoelaces. Coordination involves hand- eye coordination, whole body coordination and balance.
Examples of hand- ye coordination include: drawing, painting and writing, cutting With scissors and whole body coordination includes: walking, cycling, and swimming. Intellectual Development Intellectual development involves gaining, storing, recalling and using information. To develop these skills all children require intellectual stimulation as well as physical care and emotional security. Children are constantly thinking and learning, asking questions and storing the answers and formulating new ideas about themselves, other people and surrounding them world.
Kane (2010) suggests the following components of intellectual velveteen are: Perception- involves the ability to identify the differences between objects and sounds; Thinking; Language; Problem-solving; Concepts- abilities to understand and organism information about surrounding world; Memory; Concentration- ability to pay attention; Creativity- use of the imagination; Communication and Language Development Language is the key factor in all aspects of children’s development. It enables children to communicate with others, relate to others, explore, understand, formulate ideas, and express their feelings.
Opportunities for talk are especially helpful in promoting language development. You can talk to children about anything and everything and while doing so you can use pictures, books or other audio and visual aids. It is also necessary to use appropriate language and words to the children’s levels of understanding and development, for example not to use ‘baby talk’ as children need to hear and use adults’ speech to learn language. It is also essential to ask questions and make children answer to extend their vocabulary and encourage them to extend their speech.
Emotional and Behavioral Development “Emotional development can be defined as the development of personality ND temperament” (Kane, 2010, pap). Emotions and behavior are linked. Examples Of this are, we smile and laugh when we are happy or excited but we can also do this when we are nervous. We cry when we are upset but also when we are happy. We can tremble with excitement but we can also tremble with fear (Health visitors, 2005-2006). The most important thing to remember is that a change in child’s behavior represents a change in child’s emotions.
When changes in behavior are positive, there are numbers of different ways of how to promote positive behavior in school. An example of this can be if oh ignore an inappropriate behavior and focus on the pupil who behaves well and praise him. Praising is very beneficial to pupils as it creates a positive environment for both, teaching staff and children. Burnham (2011) says that positive encouragement and reward is also very motivating and increases pupil’s self-esteem and confidence.
When the change is a negative one it merits close attention and it is worth taking time to think about it first before reacting, especially thinking about the possible emotions that are driving the change. Development Table Table below describes the expected patterns of children and young people’s velveteen in different stages: Development stage 7 to 1 2 years Social, Emotional and Behavioral At this stage children become much attached to parents or careers. They will have emotional outbursts though frustration and will want to do things by themselves.
At age 2 to 3 years they become more interested in older children and their activities and become more independent: want to do things by themselves. Children will start to play with peers and socialism using imaginative play. They Will seek approval from adults but also observe others and imitate them. They become more aware of feelings and needs of others. They can have emotional outburst when frustrated and start argue with peers. Children will be increasingly aware of what others may think of them and become less concerned with adult approval.
At this age children’s friendship becomes more settled and they have more friends and they enjoy company of other children. At this age young people find themselves under pressure of growing up and with increasing expectations from adults. Their self-esteem can be very vulnerable. They will want to be independent of adult and spend more time with friends. They will look all grown up but on numbers of occasions will how childish behavior. This is the stage of Adulthood and that’s when young adults will need and seek advice and guidance from more experienced adults. Little babies have little control over their bodies.
But as they get older they develop movements called “Gross motto’ skills such as: crawling, sitting, grabbing and running, jumping and hopping. In their third year children will start to develop” Fine motto’ skills and they include; paintings, coloring, they are able to hold a cup and feed themselves. At this stage children will be defining their skills; they will develop more control over fine motor skills like: outing by using scissors. They will improve gross motor skills and coordination so their moves are more proficient. Children will start to have hobbies and interest such a sports and dance.
They will be refining their gross and fine motor skills. The early stages of puberty will start showing usually at age 1 0 to 1 1 Young people enjoy team games and sports. The boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls will be completing their puberty (having period) and boys and girls would vary in height. At this stage most girls are taller than boys. At this Stage young people are considered as Adults. Although many girls will be physically matured, the boys Will continue to grow until their mid-ass Communication and Intellectual Babies will start to listen to languages around them and enjoy songs and voices.
Some children will start to speak at 12 months. Bully and 2 years children will start put words together and between 2 and 3 will use negatives and plurals. They will have some errors in grammar but they use language to gain information. Children ask large amount of questions as well as will be able to talk about things in past, present and future, they will use more complex sentences and they vocabulary improves. Children will start to learn how to read. By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language. Children will be developing their writing and reading skills more and more.
They will start reading books, stories, magazines and poetry. They are more able to think and discuss ideas. By now children have well defined understanding of right and wrong they also know difference between real and imaginary. They develop more creative abilities, e. G. Very detailed drawings. At this stage young people will be selecting and taking Gases and A levels, as that’s when they have more ideas about their favorites subjects. Young people now leave the school and are thinking of the career path and if to go to university.
Examples of Development Effects Most of the time one aspect of development will lead to another. There are many examples that can describe how they affect each other. Example 1: Communication and language If a child has a language barrier because it speaks a foreign language as the first language, or child suffers of late development of speaking, this can stop other children from playing or talking to this child. Lack of communication with peers can lead to lower child’s self-esteem and let him feel as an outsider, and affect child’s social development.
From experience I have noticed that children who cannot communicate because of language barrier can look for adults and other children’s attention in different way (screaming, shouting, refusing to play with other children or refusing to share toys) which affects their behavioral development. Example 2: Physical If a child is overweight and struggles to do PEE, the other children may bully him for that. Bullying would leave the child feeling embarrassed which can lead to lose of confidence and then it will affect his physical development, as hill will refuse to participate in PEE.
Also affected is emotional development child will be upset and his self-esteem will lower, and social development as child will refuse to play with its peers. When child is physically active, he refines its gross and motor skills and his whole body coordination, so his physical development is affected. Child is also growing healthy and toning its body. Secondly child’s social development is affected, as sport and team games can improve child’s relationships with others. Child will also take turns in games and will learn how to share equipment with peers.
Emotional velveteen is affected too, as sport builds confidence in child and also communication and language because child needs to communicate with team players. Example 3: Disability If a child is disabled this can affect his physical, social and intellectual development. If a child is not able to walk, there is no mobility actions so physical development is affected. On the other hand he may spend more time learning and that will positively affect his intellectual development. It may also leave him confused, not being able to understand why he is different than others, and other children may make fun Of his disability.
He may then feel insecure and suffer from lack of confidence which will affect his emotional development. Because of disability child may feel embarrassed and as an outsider and will not build any relationships with his peers so social and behavioral development will be affected. Example 4: Siblings When there is a new baby in the family, it may be that the child doesn’t understand why he needs to share his mum’s attention with his new brother or sister. The child may feel let down, angry and isolated which can lead to problems in his emotional, social and behavioral development.
But a new baby can also have some positive effects and child may feel more responsible and will be taking care of another family member. This way child will be building up his confidence which will effect emotional and social development. Influences That Affect Children and Young People’s Development. Pupils will naturally be affected by all different factors that will have a reflection on their learning and development abilities. There are huge numbers of all different influences such as home background, health and environmental. They often cross over and blend as they are related.
Background: All pupils will be affected by their background and whether it is happy and settled or not, or there are alcoholism in the family or drugs abuse. The child’s family is the most important factor in his development. Whether he is raised by parents, grandparents, or others, the family provides bonding and first relationships. The successful family preserves the innocence of the child by nurturing and protecting him, or on the flip side, allows him to be exposed to negative experiences which can harm his development (Kay, 2006).
Examples of background as an influence on child’s development are: Styles of renting have a big effect on child development. The family that invests time, energy and love in raising a child will see the most positive growth. Parents should read to the child and with the child. They should spend time playing with the child and talk to the child to let him know that his opinion matters. All of these measures can be taken in any household, no matter the financial and economic status.
The family that abuses or neglects a child will be detracting from his natural development. There are examples Of deprivations when a pupil comes to school without eating or wearing dirty clothes. The indifferent family has a negative effect as well. The child left playing video games or watching television all day will not gain the experiences and interactions needed to further his social, physical and communicational development. Pupils from stable background, with both parents, would have confidence and are more likely to attend classes and be emotionally stable.
Pupils from unstable background with no parental guidance can lack self-confidence, may not attend classes and have problems with studying. Poverty can have devastating effects on children’s development. Lack of money can severely affect nutrition, which will lead to or health. Poor housing conditions can affect child’s safety and limit their opportunities to play. Children of families that came to UK from different countries or families that have been living in UK for long but do not use English language at home, will be also facing numbers of new challenges: new language, new school, new curriculum.
They will be meeting other children from different ethnic groups and they will need to start communicate in classroom and socialism on playground with others. Learning a new language may have a big impact on child’s development as it may take a while to write, dead and extend vocabulary comparing to English speaking pupils and can find it difficult to make further progress. Children coming from Ethnic groups (immigrants, asylum seeking, different religion) may feel socially excluded or included.
They may feel accepted and tolerated for their differences or treated as outsiders. Children social, communication and intellectual development will be affected. That is why respect to social, ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious background should be highly promoted in schools. Health: Children’s health can have a significant influence on their development and wellbeing. Affordability and general health services and family knowledge about the range of services available, and the appropriateness of these services, may also influence children’s health.
Examples of health as an influence on child’s development are: A poor economic situation, such as lack of regular income in the family, may have impact on child’s health, as there may be poor access to nutritious food or families not being able to provide adequate meals and snacks every day. These factors may affect a child’s physical and mental development, and may also affect their wellbeing. Genes are the blueprint for child’s development ND carry information about what child will look like, how he might behave, his physical and mental health and more.
The information in a child’s genes comes from his mother and father. Sometimes children inherit certain genes and physical traits from their parents that can hinder overall development. A child that is suffering from some medical condition, will not be able to participate in some physical activities, won’t be physically strong like others, will not be developing gross and fine motors skills, therefore may be lacking in self-confidence, will not have many friends, will be quiet and shy. Down syndrome, for example, is one genetic condition that causes delays in physical and intellectual development.
Turner syndrome is another inherited chromosomal disorder that affects the physical, emotional and intellectual development in female children, often resulting in physical abnormalities and learning disabilities. Nutrition is essential to healthy child development. Healthy children who continually receive proper nutrition, including fruits and vegetables, will thrive developmentally, while malnourished children may suffer problems in physical, intellectual and behavioral development. It is important to promote healthy eating habits and to teach children how to make good food choices.
Routinely eating unhealthy foods like junk food and fast food contributes to obesity and diabetes, which can impede normal physical, emotional and social development in a variety of different ways. Exercise promotes healthy physical development. It is important to get the family moving with outdoor activities like biking or shooting hoops to keep children’s’ bodies and minds healthy and fit. Environmental: The environment is the experiences every child has in the family, school and the wider community.
The environment influences things like child’s language, as well as how independent child is, and how good he is at forming relationships. Children relationships affect all areas and stages of their development. Every child learns about the world by being in a relationship when he communicates with parent, peer, teacher, other children on the playground, and also by seeing relationships between other people: how parents or peers behave towards each other. Recognition of influences that affect children and young people development is very important.
If a child falls behind with their work then all areas of their development may be effected. Examples of environmental as an influence on child’s development are: If a child had a limited experience of meeting or playing with other children in the past, this can affect a child’s social and intellectual development. Social, as child would have no confidence in communicating and playing with other children. And intellectual as not being able to socialism and play in the playground, child may not feel comfortable working with other children in class.
Therefore, if children are not working together in a group then they may not learn the same as everyone else, or not at the same pace. Children raised within impoverished environments are at risk for challenging behavior problems because they are frequently living in neighborhoods where there are limited positive role models for appropriate social behaviors. These children are more likely to be exposed to community violence, and they may also expose violence in the classroom or on the playground. Responding to both concerns above has to be done in a professional manner.
It needs to be reported to class teacher then head teacher and SENSE as it is school’s responsibility to discover the cause and seek help. Once it is ported, the correct person can help the child appropriately to solve the issue correctly and get the child back on track. If a child’s problem goes without being noticed then they will be affected in many areas of development. If there are some concerns about a child’s ability to read in a certain class, it needs to be reported to the class teacher and also the SENSE so that they can be aware of the situation.
The class teacher then can inform the school and after the parents of the pupil so that some extra help can be given to the child at home. In the case of a young person being destructive or wowing inappropriate behavior, SENSE needs to be informed. This is important for the young person development and also that the other young people in the school would not be influenced by this inappropriate behavior. Transitions Transition is a process of adjusting to a new situation and this can appear in different periods of children’s lives and may involve different experiences.
All children and young people will experience some changes at some point. There are common transitions: Changing school/ classes Moving from primary to secondary school Puberty Moving into college or university after secondary school First sexual experiences There are transitions that only some children can experience: Parental separation New sibling Bereavement: the death of a family member can be traumatic for a child Moving house Parental change of partner Change of career Illness or injury Child abuse or neglect Us absence abuse Crime (parent in prison).
Transitions may affect children in all different ways and children’s response to changes may be negative. It strongly depends of the communication that child has with an adult and it is essential for an adult to talk to children about the changes and how children really feel about them. Some children will become quiet and withdraw. Some may show obvious distress by being moody or snapping back or even have an emotional outburst (screaming and shouting) when asked questions.
Some other negative effects of transitions are: depression, lack of concentration and motivation and therefore delays in learning and developing, self-harm, eating disorders, drugs abuse, dependence, bullying or being bullied (Kane, 2010). There are also positive effects of transitions like: motivation, educational progress, confidence, good health, improved self-esteem and positive self-image, ability to build new relationships. Examples of Transitions Example 1: Children moving from primary to secondary school will face wide range of new experiences like being the oldest in school to being the youngest.
That may affect their abilities to make new contacts and build new relationships. They will also have several teachers instead of one class teacher and more subjects as well as increase in homework which may decrease their performance as there will be luck of motivation and they may be overwhelmed and distressed. Example 2: Children who have a new sibling in the family may feel lonely and abandoned as new born baby takes everyone’s attention. Children may seek adults attention so their behavior can change drastically.