The program expanded and now also focuses on tropical forests. REED+’s main thrust is to prevent any developing nation from converting forests into barren fields. Deforestation has a major impact on climate regulations. The United Nations has decided that economic rewards from wealthy nations will enable others to make global decisions as their economies develop. REED+ is “a catalyst for transformation to a Green Economy. ” (“UN-REED Programmer- Climate Funds Update,” n. D. The simple solution to pay nations not to cut down forests intends to assist them to find other means of expansion.

The poorest countries have countered that they not only need the income from logging, but the timber to build homes and hospitals, to produce paper products, and for agriculture. (“This U. N. Program Should Have Taxpayers Seeing REED,” 2011) The United Nations has not laid out a plan as to what industries they consider “Green”. Many developing countries are involved in recycling. This is an industry that is laden with hazards. Marine pollution is a worldwide issue. If a nation recycles shipping vessels over open water, is the industry truly “Green’?

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Policing of such ventures is spotty and lacks the power to enforce any regulations as set by the United Nations. To this end, the United Nations has set out to build guidelines, permits, and sanctions to assist members to reach the goals of REED+. Since the U. N. Courts founding in 1946, the U. N. ‘s International Court of Justice (ICC) has sought to “render judgments on disputes submitted to it by States and to furnish advisory opinions on questions referred to it by authorized bodies. ” “United Nations: International Law Documentation,” n. D. In the past, as with today, most resolutions are truly just international agreements. The U. N. Lacks the power to enforce any program it ratifies. Individual nations, such as the United States, sometimes circumvent resolutions. In 2009, when the REED+ text was made public, the United States’ representative declared the resolution would never pass. It was stated the document lacked clear language, no target dates for stopping deforestation, no financing and no safe guards. Smaller countries like Papua New Guiana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Columbia all sided with the U. S.

They resisted all statutes to protect their biodiversity. The U. N. Is limited to monitoring multiple nations’ actions through studies made by members such as Norway. Noon. Ray has taken a lead role in reviewing and assisting countries to adhere to REED+. In Guyana, Norway laid out the forest “law enforcement and governance, and forced practices. ” (“Study on Forest Law Enforcement and REED+ in Guyana,” n. D. ) This document was developed on site. Norway investigated the needs of indigenous people, wildlife, and the economic mummifications of REED+. Negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol began in 1997.

This is a legally binding document. Industrialized nations must cut greenhouse gases by 5. 2% compared to a collective output in 1990. This means our country must reduce emissions by 6%. Greenhouse gases are inclusive of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur, hexafluoride, hydro fluorocarbons, and per fluorocarbons. (“Kyoto Protocol-Toward Climate Stability,” n. D. ) The Kyoto Protocol has many different measures to assist countries monetarily to go green in a cost-effective manner. Based in Bonn, Germany, the U. N. Has set up a Climate Change Secretariat.

Here exact records of members efforts to conform to REED+ are traced, reviewed, and kept. Funding was also established at Kyoto. CDC (Clean Development Mechanism) is the main source of income. Developing countries earn credits for emission reduction projects. (“About CDC,” n. D. ) These credits are used in trade or can be sold. The World Bank, as organized by the LLC. N is the trustee to all REED+ funding. International Environmental Law has undergone great changes during the development of REED+. The United Nations through a series of summits has developed policies that are effective worldwide.