“Behavior is the way we conduct ourselves, especially towards others… ” Behavior in schools has declined over recent years. A I-J charity for teacher well- being the Teaching Support Network, has carried out research to identify the deterioration of pupils behavior over the past 5 years. The poll of teachers reveals over half (53%) of primary school teachers say they have seen worsening behavior, compared with only 46% of secondary school teachers. (Dessertspoon. Info) The Yogurt poll of 481 primary and 321 secondary school teachers also highlighted the impact that poor student behavior has had on teacher well-being. Nearly two thirds (62%) of primary school teachers said that poor behavior has resulted in stress, anxiety or depression. Over a third (37%) of primary school teachers say they’ve thought about leaving the profession as a result of behavior problems. Almost one in four (38%) teachers complained that behavior is preventing them from teaching effectively. (Dessertspoon. Info) There are many different types of theories behind behavior. Albert Bandeau (1977) states “behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning… ” This is known as the social learning theory. He believed that humans were active information processors who have the ability to think about the relationship between their behavior and its consequences. He suggested that observational learning could not occur unless cognitive processes were at work. What this means, is children watch the way people around them behave and replicate these behaviors.
This was illustrated in the Boob doll experiment in 1 966 carried out by Bandeau. (McLeod, S. A. 2011). Although this was a controlled experiment the results showed that the children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in physically aggressive way than those who were not exposed to the aggressive model. However it is possible to argue that the experiment was unethical. John Bowl (1 907 – 1 990) was a psychoanalyst who believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood.
His theory suggests if care is available during frightening adverse conditions the bond will be secure. Nevertheless, if the bond is delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months then this may prove detrimental to a child’s development. If the attachment figure is Rosen or disrupted during the critical two year period the child will suffer irreversible long-term consequences of this maternal deprivation such as long term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties .
This risks continues until the age of five. Bowl used the term maternal deprivation to refer to the separation or loss of the mother as well as failure to develop an attachment. Bowl (1988) However, a longitudinal study by Schaffer & Emerson suggests otherwise. They discovered, after studying 60 babies for the first 18 months Of their lives, that specific attachments started at about 8 months and, very hourly thereafter, the infants became attached to other people. By 18 months very few were attached to only one person and some had five or more attachments. McLeod 2009) It is suggested by Router that not only the mother can be an attachment figure but a father, siblings, peers and inanimate objects are also attachment figures which may cause protest or distress when child is detached from them. Router points out that several indicators of attachment (such as protest or distress when attached person leaves) have been shown for a variety of attachment figures -? fathers, billing, peers and even inanimate objects. Router also believes that children can recover from early deprivation. (Router, 1979).
For this case study I have observed child A whom I will call Bill for the purpose of this case study. These are snap shots of Bills recurring behavior. Bill is aged 4 and has an older sister with Autism and a younger sister also mum is expecting another baby very soon . Bills dad works away from home too. From a young age Bill has shown signs of social and emotional and behavior difficulties. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders are characterized primarily by behavior hat falls significantly beyond the norms of their cultural and age group on two dimensions: exterminating and internalizing. Heard 2005) Both patterns Of abnormal behavior have adverse effects on children’s academic achievement and social relationships. 1. Snapshot observation 1 of Bill: Tidy up time llama TA asked Bill to stop what he was doing and tidy up the cars. Bill screamed ‘No’, then threw toy car, pushed another child away and rolled laid face down on the carpet shouting ‘I’m not doing it I want to play. ‘ Teacher asked Bill again to put the toys away and then said ‘you can choose to tidy up now, then e can have our milk and snack or when everyone goes off to play you’ll have to stay here and tidy up the cars. The teacher then walked away. 2. Snapshot observation 2 of Bill: 9. Mama Registration Bill is rolling round on the carpet rest of class sat in a circle for register. Teacher asks Bill ‘Is that how we sit for register? Bill shouts ‘l don’t wan! ‘ Teacher asks Bill ‘Can you sit like your friend? ‘ Bill shouts ‘No, I’m not! ‘ Teacher then goes over to Bill and gentle coaxes him up and to sit like his friends . She then rewards his friend by moving him up the reward ladder for sitting appropriately.
Bill responds to this and sits better asking ‘Can I move up the ladder? The teacher then explains that if he sits well during the register he can move up 1 step. Exterminating behavior for example; getting out of their seat, yelling, talking out, disturbing peers, hitting or fighting ignoring the teacher, arguing excessively, destroying property, do not comply with directions, have temper tantrums, are excluded from peer-controlled activities do not respond to teacher corrections, do not complete tasks. Bill shows signs of these types of behavior on a daily basis.
Dry Rudolf Dressers says that “all behavior has a purpose” Including gaining attention, seeking power taking revenge or avoiding failure. (Dressers. R) Rhode, Jensen, and Reeves describe noncompliance as the “king-pin behavior” around which other behavioral excesses revolve. Noncompliance is simply defined as not following a direction within a reasonable amount of time. Most of the arguing, tantrums, fighting or rule breaking is secondary to avoiding requests or required tasks. (W. L. Heard) Having difficulty in handling frustration he has sporadic bursts of temper tantrums/meltdowns.
This behavior is a means to n end for him whether it is to want something or to avoid something and the child acts out to get a specific reaction from others. The meltdowns which according to Bill Mason (2014) occur when a child’s brain is overwhelmed with stress chemicals and has reached the panic, flight or fight stress reaction. The stress builds up to the point that the brain overwhelms and loses the ability to cope. Bills triggers tend to be caused when there is a sudden change with his routine or when he is asked to do something different by an adult.
He also has meltdowns when he cannot get his own way with his peers such as if he ants to be at the front of the line and another child is there first Bill will scream at the child and push and hit them. He has also been known to bite and scratch others and does not respond well to reasoning. As Mason states children having a meltdown take time to calm down. They should be made to feel safe by giving them space and time to think. They may not like anyone in their personal space and this should be respected . Any stimulants should also be removed.
This has an effect on Bills learning as he is missing vital parts of lessons . His peers are also effected as the teacher spends the time to settle Bill down. Concerns were raised by OFFSET in a report in 201 2/13 of the increase of low level disruption guidance was then set to place greater emphasis on the issues for the inspectors. A survey was carried out that showed the concerns from teachers career and parents it also demonstrates that people in leadership positions are not doing enough to ensure high standards in pupil’s behavior.
According to Galloway et al, disruptive behavior is defined as a ‘wide range of behavior of any behavior which appears problematic, inappropriate and disturbing to teachers’ (Phantom, 201 0) Under the guidance of the Department of Education Behavior and Discipline in Schools document 201 3 (Defer, 2013) my settings behavior policy states “We must encourage positive behavior and discourage inappropriate behavior We have 8 steps to follow in dealing with inappropriate behavior they are as follows.
They begin by reprimanding the child, then isolating the child within the classroom, using maybe a time out spot or chair privileges will then be removed and at this point a referral to WEBS should be consider. At step 4 The child will be sent to another class within their year group and the principle will be informed after that the class teacher will contact and arrange meeting with parents discuss the concerns. At this point PEPS must be started -If they child reaches stage 6 they will have a white report card and inform the principle. Partner exclusion maybe considered and the final step placed on red or amber Head teacher’s report card.
If poor behavior continues and it is felt that school have used all of the resources available to them, a referral to a Behavior Unit for a short term placement may be considered. This also refers to the Education Act 2002 and Education and Inspections Act 2000. If the children’s behavior causes concern during these tepees the class teacher will meet with the parents to discuss concerns and then refer the child to the Enhanced Learning Support Team. After further observations they will then attend a meeting with the SENSE or the head of the behavior team to discuss a Personal Education Plan.
If a child’s behavior is be due to a special educational need such as Autism or Espalier’s Syndrome the SEEN Code of Practice then recommends that pupils who are at either Stage 2 or 3 of the SEEN register should have an Individual Education Plan. The PIPE should focus on the specific learning difficulties of the hill and should take into account what the child has already achieved and should progress through the curriculum at the child’s appropriate level -all targets should be achievable over a specified time scale.
If appropriate outside advice should be sought. (OFFSET SEEN Code of Practice 1999) A child may also need to access an intervention group with an ELSE member for more direct support. If there is no progress made then outside professionals may need to be involved such as Educational psychologist. To assist Bill the schools behavior team have implemented some strategies to use Some of Hess are also suggested by the National Autistic Society (Autism. Org 2014) and although Bill has not received a statement he does show signs of autistic traits.
As mentioned previously, Bill’s sister is Autistic and he maybe copying her behaviors. According to Bandannas Social Learning Theory people learn through observing, imitating and modeling others. (Bandeau, 1977). According to a study carried out by Leslie Carver, PhD. Younger brothers or sisters of autistic children are probably going to show some of the same irregular social behaviors as their older siblings with autism Although they ay not go on to develop the disorder. Can. ‘err,2007) On a daily basis we use a now and next board with visual pictures (Picture Exchange Communication System) this is an approach that teaches early communication skills using pictures. (Baker, S. 1947-2013) of the setting and of different events that arise during a typical day such as; phonic time, lunch time, carpet time etc… This enables Bill to have prior warning as to what is happening throughout the day use an emotions fan too which is also part of the PECS .
This is a picture fan made up of several emotions and is used to help Bill talk about his motions and to learn different strategies to deal with them more effectively Bill has responded well to this and has begun to take the cards to a teacher or L AS if he is feeling frustrated or angry. Effective strategies we use with young children are sticker charts to reward positive behavior. Bill responds well to praise and rewards. Wellhead, Watson and Skinner state ‘that the most effective ways to help learners is to teach them new behaviors by using rewards and sanctions”.
Cries, J. & Soon, S. (2003) We use a rewards ladder for the whole class. The aim of this is to reward the children’s good behavior or ark they then climb to the top of the ladder. When they reach the top they are rewarded with a book mark. Bill has 1-1 time with the behavior team on a daily basis to talk about how is behavior has being in that particular day has a squashy stress ball to squeeze when he is beginning to get angry this is not always productive depending on Bills frame of mind he chooses to throw the ball instead.
Within the setting there is a quiet area/ time out corner Bill is able to access whenever he feels the need to have a few minutes to calm down. This is very effective when Bill knows he has behaved inappropriately he sometimes take himself to the quiet area to calm down after 5-10 minutes Bill is then usually ready to discuss his behavior with an adult and also make a choice for the consequences of his action.
This is known as restorative justice it is an approach used to discuss together what has happened and what impact it has had on those involved and how they have been effected and what needs to happen to put things right. American Physiologist Burghs Frederic Skinner believed that the use of punishment in schools to be ineffective and after research found that the use of rewards influenced a student’s behavior. Skinner) Although Cohn disagrees with Skinner and believes that the use of rewards as being ineffective as once the rewards are stopped the child reverts back to the unacceptable behavior. Chon 1993). Many behavior management systems used in today’s schools are directly influenced by his work. Skinner Bill shows signs of poor emotional and social skills in accordance to the Early Years Foundation Stage he is currently working within the at 16-26 months strand of SSE feelings and behavior (BYES 2014). Due to this he is at risk of making poor relationships with peers and problems with his academic progression, which later could dead to involvement in crime, or developing physical or mental health problems.
After researching attachment disorders Bill shows signs of having Ambivalent Attachment Disorder he can be openly angry and displays destructive behavior, he does not like people invading his personal space and tells people to get away . Bill struggles to have any kind of friendship with his peers. If he does not get his own way he can get aggressive and hurt others. Untreated, this could lead to become a sociopath or psychopath. (Smith,B. 201 0) Social and emotional milestones are often harder to pinpoint than signs of physical development.
This area emphasizes many skills that increase self-awareness and self-regulation. Research shows that social skills and emotional development (reflected in the ability to pay attention, make transitions from one activity to another, and cooperate with others) are a very important part of school readiness. Mascots believes that before a student’s cognitive needs can be met they must first fulfill their basic physiological needs. For example a tired and hungry student will find it difficult to focus on learning.
Students need to feel emotionally and physically safe and accepted within the classroom to progress and reach their full potential. Mascot, 1943-1954) In order to develop social and emotional skills, parents need to give their children the opportunity to play with others, explore their own abilities and express their feelings. While maintaining limits, it is a good idea to offer children choices so that they can begin asserting their own preferences.
Erikson believes that there are eight stages of social and emotional development and that the each stage must be met before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. (Erikson 1 956) It is essential for children to learn that they can trust and rely on their caregivers. By being responsive ND consistent, parents help children learn that they can depend on the people they are close to. A big part of this also involves providing consistent rules and discipline as a child get older. If a child knows what is expected and what will happen when the rules are broken, they will learn that the world is orderly.
Doing this also help the child to develop a greater sense of self- control, (Agate 2014) In social situations, help you child learn how to express their emotions in appropriate ways. When strong emotions like anger or jealousy rear their heads, a child should be encouraged to talk about how hey are feeling without acting out inappropriately. When unsuitable emotional responses do occur, such as hitting or yelling, been clear and concise and let the child know that the actions are not acceptable, but always offer an alternative response. An adult should model the type of behavior you expect to see as often as possible.
According to Boycotts (1 978), “much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor,” and with appropriate direction and guidance, children usually learn ways to regulate themselves and compromise with others, and grow out of using aggression to get what they want. The aim of this case study was to look at behavior of a particular child in my setting and how we implement strategies to promote positive behavior. It has become apparent that when Bill has structure and routine at school he is able to apply himself academically.
This can help him to reach his full academic potential. During my observations of Bill has shown signs of emotional and social behavior which needs further investigation. Have looked at the triggers and put recommendations in place such as continuing to use the Now and Next board and emotional fans regularly as this will support Bill through his academic journey. It will also enable him to understand his emotions and how to deal with his anger in a more appropriate way. Referral to the SENSE and a PEP have been put into place and this will ensure all other adults have an understanding of how best to help Bill.
The intervention of an Educational Physiologist would benefit Bill as it may be that he has needs one to one support put in place. Now feel I have a better understanding of the theoretical constructs that underpin different behavior traits. Can now use this knowledge and understanding in my own practice to ensure the individual needs of every child are met in accordance with the strategic approaches that are available to us.