Churches used the emotional and theatrical qualities of art to make worship more attractive and appealing. The middle class too, Influenced the development of the baroque style, for example prosperous merchants and doctors commissioned realistic landscapes and scenes from everyday life. 3. Write a paragraph that includes the characteristics of Baroque music. A. Unity of mood – Usually expresses one basic mood: what begins joyfully will remain Joyful throughout. Emotional states like Joy, grief, and agitation ere represented.
Composers molded a musical language to depict the affections; specific rhythms or melodic patterns were associated with specific moods. B. Rhythm – Rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated throughout it. This rhythmic continuity provides a compelling drive and energy-the forward motion is rarely interrupted. The beat, for example, is emphasized far more in baroque music than in most Renaissance music. C. Melody – There is a continuous expanding, unfolding, and unwinding of melody.
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This sense of directed motion Is recently the result of a melodic sequence, that Is, successive repetition of a musical idea at higher or lower pitches. Many baroque melodies sound elaborate and ornamental, and they are not easy to sing or remember. It gives an impression of dynamic expansion rather than of balance or symmetry. D. Dynamics – The level of volume tends to stay fairly constant for a stretch of time. When the dynamics do shift, the shift is sudden, like physically stepping from one level to another. The main keyboard Instruments of the baroque period were the organ and harpsichord, both ell suited for continuity of dynamics.
E. Texture – It Is predominantly polyphonic In texture. Usually, the soprano and bass lines are the most Important. Not all-late baroque music was polyphonic, a piece might shift in texture, especially in vocal music, where changes of mood in the words demand musical contrast. F. Chords and the basso continuo – Chords gave new prominence to the bass part, which served as the foundation of the harmony. The whole musical structure rested on the bass part. The new emphasis on chords and the bass part resulted in the most characteristic torture of baroque music, an accompaniment called the basso continuo.
The basso continuo offered the advantage of emphasizing the all-important bass part, besides providing a steady flow of chords. G. Use of words in the music – Baroque composers used music to depict the meaning of specific words. Rising scales represented upward motion; descending scales depicted the reverse. Descending chromatic scales were associated with pain and grief. Composers often emphasized words by writing many rapid notes for a single syllable of text; this technique also displayed a 4. What was the role of music in Baroque society?
It served as musical expression for brilliant composers, a source of entertainment for aristocrats, a way of life for musicians and a temporary escape from the routines of daily life for the general public. 5. What was the goal of the group known as the ‘Camera”? The Camera wanted to create a new vocal style modeled on the music of ancient Greek tragedy. Since no actual dramatic music had come down to them from the Greeks, they based their theories on literacy accounts that had survived. Ere Camera wanted the vocal line to follow the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of beech. 6.
Write a detailed description of each of the following new forms in Baroque music: A. Concerto gross – Extended composition for instrumental soloists and orchestra, usually in three movements: (1) Fast, (2) Slow, (3) Fast. B. Fugue – Polyphonic composition based on one main theme or subject. C. Opera – Drama that IS sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing local soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and society. D. Solo concerto – A piece for single soloist and an orchestra. E. Baroque suite – A group of dance, usually in the name key, with each piece in the binary form or the ternary form.
F. Oratorio – Large- scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative text, but without acting, scenery, or costumes; often based on biblical stories. G. Sonata – In baroque music, an instrumental composition in several movements for one to eight players. In music after the baroque period, an instrumental composition usually in several movements for one or two players. H. Church cantata – Composition in several movements, usually written for chorus, one or more vocal soloists; and orchestra.
The church cantata for the Lutheran service in Germany during the Baroque period often includes chorales. 7. Write a complete definition for each of the following terms: A. Movement – Piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition. B. Libretto – Text of an opera written by the librettist (dramatists) and set to music by the composer. C. Aria -Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas. D.